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Urbanization In China Essay Topics

Degree of urbanization in China from 2006 to 2016

Share of urban population
200644.34%
200745.89%
200846.99%
200948.34%
201049.95%
201151.27%
201252.57%
201353.73%
201454.77%
201556.1%
201657.35%
Share of urban population
200644.34%
200745.89%
200846.99%
200948.34%
201049.95%
201151.27%
201252.57%
201353.73%
201454.77%
201556.1%
201657.35%

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Release date
October 2017
Region
China
Survey time period
2006 to 2016
The graph shows the percentage of Chinese population living in urban areas until 2016. In 2012, about 53 percent of the total population lived in cities.
Degree of urbanization in China – additional information

Urbanization is generally defined as a process of people migrating from rural to urban areas, during which towns and cities are formed and increase in size. Even though urbanization is not exclusively a modern phenomenon, industrialization and modernization did accelerate its progress. As shown in the statistic at hand, the degree of urbanization of China, the world’s second-largest economy, rose from 39 percent in 2002 to around 53 percent in 2012. In 2011, the urban population surpassed the number of rural residents for the first time in the country’s history. According to the urbanization blueprint, issued in March 2013 by the Communist Party and State Council, China aims at reaching 70 percent urbanization by 2030.

Brazil and Russia, two other BRIC countries, display a much higher degree of urbanization than China. On the other hand, in India, the country with the worlds’ second largest population, a mere 31.7 percent of the population lived in urban regions as of 2012.

Urbanization is further advanced in East China regions than in Central or West China. Among the ten largest Chinese cities in 2010, seven were located in East China. That year, Shanghai ranked as the seventh largest city worldwide. It was also listed as one of the strongest growing metropolises in the world in terms of income and employment increase.

Similar to other parts of the world, the progress of urbanization in China is closely linked to modernization. From 2003 to 2013, the contribution of agriculture to the gross domestic product in China shrank from 12.8 percent to 10 percent. Even more evident was the decrease of workforce in agriculture.
Show more
The graph shows the percentage of Chinese population living in urban areas until 2016. In 2012, about 53 percent of the total population lived in cities.
Degree of urbanization in China – additional information

Urbanization is generally defined as a process of people migrating from rural to urban areas, during which towns and cities are formed and increase in size. Even though urbanization is not exclusively a modern phenomenon, industrialization and modernization did accelerate its progress. As shown in the statistic at hand, the degree of urbanization of China, the world’s second-largest economy, rose from 39 percent in 2002 to around 53 percent in 2012. In 2011, the urban population surpassed the number of rural residents for the first time in the country’s history. According to the urbanization blueprint, issued in March 2013 by the Communist Party and State Council, China aims at reaching 70 percent urbanization by 2030.

Brazil and Russia, two other BRIC countries, display a much higher degree of urbanization than China. On the other hand, in India, the country with the worlds’ second largest population, a mere 31.7 percent of the population lived in urban regions as of 2012.

Urbanization is further advanced in East China regions than in Central or West China. Among the ten largest Chinese cities in 2010, seven were located in East China. That year, Shanghai ranked as the seventh largest city worldwide. It was also listed as one of the strongest growing metropolises in the world in terms of income and employment increase.

Similar to other parts of the world, the progress of urbanization in China is closely linked to modernization. From 2003 to 2013, the contribution of agriculture to the gross domestic product in China shrank from 12.8 percent to 10 percent. Even more evident was the decrease of workforce in agriculture.
Show more
Abstract

This dissertation, consisting of three essays on the urban development in China, provides empirical evidence for three related but different topics: urban growth pattern, agglomeration effects in production (production-side benefits of cities), and agglomeration effects in consumption (consumption-side benefits of cities). The first essay examines the growth pattern of Chinese cities at prefectural level or above by applying a non-parametric analysis. The kernel regression reveals the coexistence of a divergent growth pattern for large cities and a convergent growth pattern for small cities. The analysis comparing two different kinds of population data shows that excluding migrant workers in the count of urban population would underestimate the size and growth of large cities, which implies that rural-urban migrants move to large cities disproportionately. The results suggest that policies trying to control the growth of large cities have been ineffective in the past two decades. Using plant-level data in China, the second essay finds that the mechanisms of agglomeration economies vary with industry groups, and there is strong evidence supporting that regional industrial dominance would limit localization economies and diminish the productivity of firms. However, the negative effects of regional industrial dominance seem to be mitigated by a large and diverse urban environment. The conclusion points to the productivity-enhancing effect of agglomeration, and a competitive industrial structure is crucial for the success of the on-going industrial transformation and upgrading in China. Using survey data from China, the third essay reveals a positive relationship between city size and various categories of household consumption expenditures in China. By addressing several potential econometric issues, the analysis finds strong evidence of the agglomeration effect in consumption, which points to the important role that large cities play in enhancing household consumption. Taken together, this dissertation concludes that large cities in China have been dominant during the rapid urbanization and tend to keep growing disproportionately. Large cities in China are more productive and provide higher consumption amenities than small cities. Therefore, a market-driven urbanization process would be more efficient and effective for enhancing both productivity and consumption in China.

URI
http://hdl.handle.net/1903/19074

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