1 Dotaur

Kerala Essay Writing

This article is about the Indian state of Kerala. For the genus of moth, see Kerala (moth). For the incident in Afghanistan, see Kerala massacre.

Kerala
Kēraḷam
State

A houseboat in the Kerala backwaters

Nickname(s): God's Own Country, Spice Garden of India, Land of Coconuts

Location of Kerala
Coordinates (Thiruvananthapuram): 8°30′N77°00′E / 8.5°N 77°E / 8.5; 77Coordinates: 8°30′N77°00′E / 8.5°N 77°E / 8.5; 77
Country India
Statehood1 November 1956
CapitalThiruvananthapuram
Districts14
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Kerala
 • GovernorP. Sathasivam[1]
 • Chief MinisterPinarayi Vijayan (CPI (M))
 • Chief SecretaryPaul Antony IAS[2]
 • Director General of PoliceLokanath BeheraIPS
 • LegislatureUnicameral (141 seats)
Area
 • Total38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi)
Area rank22nd
Highest elevation2,695 m (8,842 ft)
Lowest elevation−2.2 m (−7.2 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
 • Total33,387,677
 • Rank13th
 • Density860/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Keralite, Malayali
Time zoneIST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 codeIN-KL
HDI 0.712 (High)[4]
HDI rank1st (2015)
Literacy93.9% (1st) (2011)
Official languageMalayalam[5]
Websitekerala.gov.in
140 elected, 1 nominated

Kerala (), called Keralam in Malayalam (where Kerala is the adjectival form), is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Thiruvananthapuram is the largest city in the state. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.

The Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era (CE or AD). The region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin. They united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which later became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State (excluding Gudalur taluk of Nilgiris district, Topslip, the Attappadi Forest east of Anakatti), the state of Thiru-Kochi (excluding four southern taluks of Kanyakumari district, Shenkottai and Tenkasi taluks), and the taluks of Kasaragod (now Kasaragod District) and South Kanara (Tulunad) which were a part of Madras State.

Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%; the highest Human Development Index (HDI), 0.712 in 2015; the highest literacy rate, 93.91% in the 2011 census; the highest life expectancy, 77 years; and the highest sex ratio, 1,084 women per 1,000 men. The state has witnessed significant emigration, especially to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, and its economy depends significantly on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community. Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian, Arab, European cultures,[6] developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad.

The production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew and spices are important. The state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres (370 mi), and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions.

Etymology[edit]

The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from Kera ("coconut tree" in Malayalam) and alam ("land"); thus "land of coconuts",[7] which is a nickname for the state, used by locals, due to abundance of coconut trees.[8] The word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperorAshoka (274–237 BCE), one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.[9] The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra (Sanskrit for "son of Kerala"); or "son of Chera[s]". This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree".[10] At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word.[11] The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake".[12]

The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is also mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics.[13] The Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple.[14][15]Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamilcherive-alam ("declivity of a hill or a mountain slope")[16] or chera alam ("Land of the Cheras"). The Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra.[17]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Kerala

Mythology[edit]

According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu (hence, Kerala is also called Parasurama Kshetram ("The Land of Parasurama")[18]). Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari.[19] The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation; so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, who spat holy poison and converted the soil into fertile lush green land. Out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land. The legend was later expanded, and found literary expression in the 17th or 18th century with Keralolpathi, which traces the origin of aspects of early Kerala society, such as land tenure and administration, to the story of Parasurama.[20] In medieval times Kuttuvan may have emulated the Parasurama tradition by throwing his spear into the sea to symbolise his lordship over it.[21]

Another much earlier Puranic character associated with Kerala is Mahabali, an Asura and a prototypical just king, who ruled the earth from Kerala. He won the war against the Devas, driving them into exile. The Devas pleaded before Lord Vishnu, who took his fifth incarnation as Vamana and pushed Mahabali down to Patala (the netherworld) to placate the Devas. There is a belief that, once a year during the Onam festival, Mahabali returns to Kerala.[22] The Matsya Purana, among the oldest of the 18 Puranas,[23][24] uses the Malaya Mountains of Kerala (and Tamil Nadu) as the setting for the story of Matsya, the first incarnation of Vishnu, and Manu, the first man and the king of the region.[25][26]

Pre-history[edit]

Main article: Pre-history of Kerala

A substantial portion of Kerala may have been under the sea in ancient times. Marine fossils have been found in an area near Changanacherry, thus supporting the hypothesis.[27] Pre-historical archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area of the Idukki district. They are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni (hermit or sage) and ara (dolmen).[28] Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves, in Wayanad date back to the Neolithic era around 6000 BCE.[29][30] Archaeological studies have identified Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic sites in Kerala.[31] The studies point to the development of ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic Age, through the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic Ages.[32] Foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation;[33] historians suggest a possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age.[34]

Ancient period[edit]

Kerala has been a major spice exporter since 3000 BCE, according to Sumerian records and it is still referred to as the "Garden of Spices" or as the "Spice Garden of India".[35][36] Kerala's spices attracted ancient Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians to the Malabar Coast in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE. Phoenicians established trade with Kerala during this period.[37] The Land of Keralaputra was one of the four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being Chola, Pandya, and Satiyaputra.[38] Scholars hold that Keralaputra is an alternate name of the Cheras, the first dominant dynasty based in Kerala.[39][40] These territories once shared a common language and culture, within an area known as Tamilakam.[41] Along with the Ay kingdom in the south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north, the Cheras formed the ruling kingdoms of Kerala in the early years of the Common Era (CE). It is noted in Sangam literature that the Chera king Uthiyan Cheralathan ruled most of modern Kerala from his capital in Kuttanad,[44] and controlled the port of Muziris, but its southern tip was in the kingdom of Pandyas,[45] which had a trading port sometimes identified in ancient Western sources as Nelcynda (or Neacyndi) in Quilon.[46] The lesser known Ays and Mushikas kingdoms lay to the south and north of the Chera regions respectively.[47][48]

In the last centuries BCE the coast became important to the Greeks and Romans for its spices, especially black pepper. The Cheras had trading links with China, West Asia, Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire.[49] In foreign-trade circles the region was known as Male or Malabar.[50]Muziris, Berkarai, and Nelcynda were among the principal ports at that time.[51] The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces;[52] contemporary Sangam literature describes Roman ships coming to Muziris in Kerala, laden with gold to exchange for pepper. One of the earliest western traders to use the monsoon winds to reach Kerala was Eudoxus of Cyzicus, around 118 or 166 BCE, under the patronage of Ptolemy VIII, king of the HellenisticPtolemaic dynasty in Egypt. Roman establishments in the port cities of the region, such as a temple of Augustus and barracks for garrisoned Roman soldiers, are marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana; the only surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus.[53][54]

Merchants from West Asia and Southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala.[55] The Israeli (Jewish) connection with Kerala started in 573 BCE.[56][57][58] Arabs also had trade links with Kerala, starting before the 4th century BCE, as Herodotus (484–413 BCE) noted that goods brought by Arabs from Kerala were sold to the Israelis [Hebrew (Jews)] at Eden.[51] Israelis intermarried with local (Cheras Dravidian) people, resulting in formation of the Mappila community.[59] In the 4th century, some Christians also migrated from Persia and joined the early Syrian Christian community who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.[60][61]Mappila (Semitic) was an honorific title that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; Israelite(Jewish), Syrian (Aramaic) Christian, and Muslim immigration account for later names of the respective communities: Juda Mappilas, Nasrani Mappilas, and Muslim Mappilas.[62][63] The earliest Saint Thomas Christian Churches,[64]Cheraman Juma Masjid (629 CE)—the first mosque of India[65]—and Paradesi Synagogue (1568 CE)—the oldest active synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations[66]—were built in Kerala.[59]

Early medieval period[edit]

A second Chera Kingdom (c. 800–1102), also known as Kulasekhara dynasty of Mahodayapuram (present-day Kodungallur), was established by Kulasekhara Varman, which ruled over a territory comprising the whole of modern Kerala and a smaller part of modern Tamil Nadu. During the early part of the Kulasekara period, the southern region from Nagerkovil to Thiruvalla was ruled by Ay kings, who lost their power in the 10th century, making the region a part of the Kulasekara empire.[67][68] Under Kulasekhara rule, Kerala witnessed a developing period of art, literature, trade and the Bhakti movement of Hinduism.[69] A Keralite identity, distinct from the Tamils, became linguistically separate during this period around the seventh century.[70] For local administration, the empire was divided into provinces under the rule of Naduvazhis, with each province comprising a number of Desams under the control of chieftains, called as Desavazhis.[69]

The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala ports. In addition, Portuguese invasions in the 15th century caused two major religion Buddhism and Jainism to disappear from the land. It is known that the Menons in the Malabar region of Kerala were originally strong believers of Jainism. [71] The social system became fractured with divisions on caste lines.[72] Finally, the Kulasekhara dynasty was subjugated in 1102 by the combined attack of Later Pandyas and Later Cholas.[67] However, in the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulashekhara (1299–1314) of the southern Venad kingdom was able to establish a short-lived supremacy over southern India. After his death, in the absence of a strong central power, the state was divided into thirty small warring principalities; the most powerful of them were the kingdom of Samuthiri in the north, Venad in the south and Kochi in the middle. In the 18th Century, Travancore King Sree Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma annexed all the kingdoms up to Northern Kerala through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to pre-eminence in Kerala. The Kochi ruler sued for peace with Anizham Thirunal and Malabar came under direct British rule until India became independent.[73][74]

Colonial era[edit]

The maritime spice trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean (Indu Maha Samundr) stayed with the Arabs during the High and Late Middle Ages. However, the dominance of Middle East traders was challenged in the European Age of Discovery. After Vasco Da Gama's arrival in KappadKozhikode in 1498, the Portuguese began to dominate eastern shipping, and the spice-trade in particular.[75][76][77] The Zamorin of Kozhikode permitted the new visitors to trade with his subjects such that Portuguese trade in Kozhikode prospered with the establishment of a factory and a fort. However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Zamorin and led to conflicts between them. The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Zamorin and the King of Kochi allied with Kochi. When Francisco de Almeida was appointed as Viceroy of Portuguese India in 1505, his headquarters was established at Fort Kochi (Fort Emmanuel) rather than in Kozhikode. During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a few fortresses on the Malabar Coast.[78] However, the Portuguese suffered setbacks from attacks by Zamorin forces; especially from naval attacks under the leadership Kozhikode admirals known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. In 1571, the Portuguese were defeated by the Zamorin forces in the battle at Chaliyam fort.[79]

The Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India Company, who during the conflicts between the Kozhikode and the Kochi, gained control of the trade.[80] The Dutch in turn were weakened by constant battles with Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal Family, and were defeated at the Battle of Colachel in 1741.[81] An agreement, known as "Treaty of Mavelikkara", was signed by the Dutch and Travancore in 1753, according to which the Dutch were compelled to detach from all political involvement in the region.[82][83][84] Marthanda Varma annexed northern kingdoms through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to a position of preeminence in Kerala.[85]

In 1766, Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysoreinvaded northern Kerala.[86] His son and successor, Tipu Sultan, launched campaigns against the expanding British East India Company, resulting in two of the four Anglo-Mysore Wars.[87][88] Tipu ultimately ceded the Malabar District and South Kanara to the company in the 1790s; both were annexed to the Madras Presidency of British India in 1792.[89][90][91] The company forged tributary alliances with Kochi in 1791 and Travancore in 1795.[92] By the end of 18th century, the whole of Kerala fell under the control of the British, either administered directly or under suzerainty.[93] There were major revolts in Kerala during the independence movement in the 20th century; most notable among them is the 1921 Malabar Rebellion and the social struggles in Travancore. In the Malabar Rebellion, Mappila Muslims of Malabar rioted against Hindu zamindars and the British Raj.[94] Some social struggles against caste inequalities also erupted in the early decades of 20th century, leading to the 1936 Temple Entry Proclamation that opened Hindu temples in Travancore to all castes.[95]

Post-colonial period[edit]

After India was partitioned in 1947 into India and Pakistan, Travancore and Kochi, part of the Union of India were merged on 1 July 1949 to form Travancore-Cochin.[96] On 1 November 1956, the taluk of Kasargod in the South Kanara district of Madras, the Malabar district of Madras, and Travancore-Cochin, without four southern taluks (which joined Tamil Nadu), merged to form the state of Kerala under the States Reorganisation Act.[97][98] A Communist-led government under E. M. S. Namboodiripad resulted from the first elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1957.[98] It was one of the earliest elected Communist governments, after Communist success in the 1945 elections in the Republic of San Marino.[99][100][101] His government helped distribute land and implement educational reforms.[102]

Geography[edit]

Main article: Geography of Kerala

The state is wedged between the Lakshadweep Sea and the Western Ghats. Lying between northern latitudes 8°18' and 12°48' and eastern longitudes 74°52' and 77°22',[103] Kerala experiences the humid equatorial tropic climate. The state has a coast of 590 km (370 mi)[104] and the width of the state varies between 11 and 121 kilometres (7 and 75 mi).[105] Geographically, Kerala can be divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands; rugged and cool mountainous terrain, the central mid-lands; rolling hills, and the western lowlands; coastal plains.[106]Pre-Cambrian and Pleistocene geological formations compose the bulk of Kerala's terrain.[107][108] A catastrophic flood in Kerala in 1341 CE drastically modified its terrain and consequently affected its history; it also created a natural harbour for spice transport.[109] The eastern region of Kerala consists of high mountains, gorges and deep-cut valleys immediately west of the Western Ghats' rain shadow.[106] 41 of Kerala's west-flowing rivers,[110] and 3 of its east-flowing ones originate in this region.[111][112] The Western Ghats form a wall of mountains interrupted only near Palakkad; hence also known Palghat, where the Palakkad Gap breaks.[113] The Western Ghats rise on average to 1,500 metres (4,900 feet) above sea level,[114] while the highest peaks reach around 2,500 metres (8,200 feet).[115]Anamudi in the Idukki district is the highest peak in south India, is at an elevation of 2,695 m (8,842 ft).[116]

Kerala's western coastal belt is relatively flat compared to the eastern region,[117] and is criss-crossed by a network of interconnected brackish canals, lakes, estuaries,[118] and rivers known as the Kerala Backwaters.[119] The state's largest lake Vembanad, dominates the backwaters; it lies between Alappuzha and Kochi and is about 200 km2 (77 sq mi) in area.[120] Around eight percent of India's waterways are found in Kerala.[121] Kerala's 44 rivers include the Periyar; 244 kilometres (152 mi), Bharathapuzha; 209 kilometres (130 mi), Pamba; 176 kilometres (109 mi), Chaliyar; 169 kilometres (105 mi), Kadalundipuzha; 130 kilometres (81 mi), Chalakudipuzha; 130 kilometres (81 mi), Valapattanam; 129 kilometres (80 mi) and the Achankovil River; 128 kilometres (80 mi). The average length of the rivers is 64 kilometres (40 mi). Many of the rivers are small and entirely fed by monsoon rain.[122] As Kerala's rivers are small and lacking in delta, they are more prone to environmental effects. The rivers face problems such as sand mining and pollution.[123] The state experiences several natural hazards like landslides, floods and droughts. The state was also affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.[124]

Climate[edit]

With around 120–140 rainy days per year,[125]:80 Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the southwest summer monsoon and northeast winter monsoon.[126] Around 65% of the rainfall occurs from June to August corresponding to the Southwest monsoon, and the rest from September to December corresponding to Northeast monsoon.[126] The moisture-laden winds of the Southwest monsoon, on reaching the southernmost point of the Indian Peninsula, because of its topography, divides into two branches; the "Arabian Sea Branch" and the "Bay of Bengal Branch".[127] The "Arabian Sea Branch" of the Southwest monsoon first hits the Western Ghats,[128] making Kerala the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest monsoon.[129][130] The distribution of pressure patterns is reversed in the Northeast monsoon, during this season the cold winds from North India pick up moisture from the Bay of Bengal and precipitate it on the east coast of peninsular India.[131][132] In Kerala, the influence of the Northeast monsoon is seen in southern districts only.[133] Kerala's rainfall averages 2,923 mm (115 in) annually.[134] Some of Kerala's drier lowland regions average only 1,250 mm (49 in); the mountains of the eastern Idukki district receive more than 5,000 mm (197 in) of orographic precipitation: the highest in the state. In eastern Kerala, a drier tropical wet and dry climate prevails. During the summer, the state is prone to gale-force winds, storm surges, cyclone-related torrential downpours, occasional droughts, and rises in sea level.[135]:26, 46, 52 The mean daily temperature ranges from 19.8 °C to 36.7 °C.[136] Mean annual temperatures range from 25.0–27.5 °C in the coastal lowlands to 20.0–22.5 °C in the eastern highlands.[135]:65

Climate data for Kerala
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)30
(86)
31
(88)
32
(90)
34
(93)
34
(93)
30
(86)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
31
(88)
34
(93)
Average low °C (°F)22
(72)
23
(73)
24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
22
(72)
Average rainfall mm (inches)8.7
(0.343)
14.7
(0.579)
30.4
(1.197)
109.5
(4.311)
239.8
(9.441)
649.8
(25.583)
726.1
(28.587)
419.5
(16.516)
244.2
(9.614)
292.3
(11.508)
150.9
(5.941)
37.5
(1.476)
2,923.4
(115.096)
Source: [134][136]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Main article: Flora and fauna of Kerala

Most of the biodiversity is concentrated and protected in the Western Ghats. Three quarters of the land area of Kerala was under thick forest up to 18th century.[139] As of 2004[update], over 25% of India's 15,000 plant species are in Kerala. Out of the 4,000 flowering plant species; 1,272 of which are endemic to Kerala, 900 are medicinal, and 159 are threatened.[140]:11 Its 9,400 km2 of forests include tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests (lower and middle elevations—3,470 km2), tropical moist and dry deciduous forests (mid-elevations—4,100 km2 and 100 km2, respectively), and montane subtropical and temperate (shola) forests (highest elevations—100 km2). Altogether, 24% of Kerala is forested.[140]:12 Three of the world's Ramsar Convention listed wetlands—Lake Sasthamkotta, Ashtamudi Lake and the Vembanad-Kol wetlands—are in Kerala, as well as 1455.4 km2 of the vast Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Subjected to extensive clearing for cultivation in the 20th century,[141]:6–7 much of the remaining forest cover is now protected from clearfelling.[142] Eastern Kerala's windward mountains shelter tropical moist forests and tropical dry forests, which are common in the Western Ghats.[143][144] The world's oldest teak plantation 'Conolly's Plot' is in Nilambur.[145]

Kerala's fauna are notable for their diversity and high rates of endemism: it includes 118 species of mammals (1 endemic), 500 species of birds, 189 species of freshwater fish, 173 species of reptiles (10 of them endemic), and 151 species of amphibians (36 endemic).[146] These are threatened by extensive habitat destruction, including soil erosion, landslides, salinisation, and resource extraction. In the forests, sonokeling, Dalbergia latifolia, anjili, mullumurikku, Erythrina, and Cassia number among the more than 1,000 species of trees in Kerala. Other plants include bamboo, wild black pepper, wild cardamom, the calamusrattan palm, and aromatic vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides.[140]:12Indian elephant, Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, Nilgiri tahr, common palm civet, and grizzled giant squirrels are also found in the forests.[140]:12, 174–175 Reptiles include the king cobra, viper, python, and mugger crocodile. Kerala's birds include the Malabar trogon, the great hornbill, Kerala laughingthrush, darter and southern hill myna. In the lakes, wetlands, and waterways, fish such as kadu; stinging catfish and choottachi; orange chromide—Etroplus maculatus are found.[140]:163–165

Parasurama, surrounded by settlers, commanding Varuna (the Hindu God of water) to part the seas and reveal Kerala
Silk Road map. The spice trade was mainly along the water routes (blue).

Anamudi, on the right, as seen from the Munnar-Udumalpettai highway

Kerala, a state situated on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India, is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country. Named as one of the ten paradises of the world by National Geographic Traveler,[1] Kerala is famous especially for its ecotourism initiatives and beautiful backwaters.[2] Its unique culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demography, have made Kerala one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. Growing at a rate of 13.31%, the tourism industry is a major contributor to the state's economy.[3]

Until the early 1980s, Kerala was a relatively unknown destination, with most tourism circuits concentrated around the north of the country. Aggressive marketing campaigns launched by the Kerala Tourism Development Corporation—the government agency that oversees tourism prospects of the state—laid the foundation for the growth of the tourism industry. In the decades that followed, Kerala Tourism was able to transform itself into one of the niche holiday destinations in India. The tag line Kerala – God's Own Country was adopted in its tourism promotions and became a global superbrand. Kerala is regarded as one of the destinations with the highest brand recall.[4] In 2010, Kerala attracted 660,000 foreign tourist arrivals.[5]

Kerala is an established destination for both domestic as well as foreign tourists. Kerala is well known for its beaches, backwaters in Alappuzha and Kollam, mountain ranges and wildlife sanctuaries. Other popular attractions in the state include the beaches at Kovalam, Kappad, Cherai and Varkala; backwater tourism and lake resorts around Ashtamudi Lake, Kollam; hill stations and resorts at Munnar, Wayanad, Nelliampathi, Vagamon and Ponmudi; and national parks and wildlife sanctuaries at Periyar, Parambikulam and Eravikulam National Park. The "backwaters" region—an extensive network of interlocking rivers, lakes, and canals that centre on Ashtamudi Lake, Kollam, also see heavy tourist traffic. Heritage sites, such as the Padmanabhapuram Palace, Hill Palace, and Mattancherry Palace, are also visited. The city of Kochi ranks first in the total number of international and domestic tourists in Kerala.[6][7] To further promote tourism in Kerala, the Grand Kerala Shopping Festival was started by the Government of Kerala in 2007.[8] Since then it has been held every year during the December–January period.

The state's tourism agenda promotes ecologically sustained tourism, which focuses on the local culture, wilderness adventures, volunteering and personal growth of the local population. Efforts are taken to minimise the adverse effects of traditional tourism on the natural environment, and enhance the cultural integrity of local people.

Historical context[edit]

Since its incorporation as a state, Kerala's economy largely operated under welfare-based democratic socialist principles. This mode of development, though it resulted in a high Human Development Index and standard of living among the people, led to an economic stagnation in the 1980s (growth rate of 2.3% annually).[9]) This apparent paradox—high human development and low economic development—led to a large number of educated unemployed seeking jobs overseas, especially in the Gulf countries. Due to the large number of expatriates, many travel operators and agencies set up shop in the state to facilitate their travel needs. However, the trends soon reciprocated, with the travel agencies noticing the undermined potential of the state as a tourist destination. The first travel agency in Kerala, Kerala Travels, was founded by Col G.V. Raja of the Travancore royal family along with P.G.C. Pillai.

By 1986, tourism had gained an industry status. Kerala Tourism subsequently adopted the tagline God's Own Country in its advertisement campaigns. Aggressive promotion in print and electronic media were able to invite a sizable investment in the hospitality industry. By the early 2000s, tourism had grown into a full–fledged, multibillion-dollar industry in the state. The state was able to carve a niche for itself in the world tourism industry, thus becoming one of the places with the "highest brand recall".[10] In 2003, Kerala, a hitherto unknown tourism destination, became the fastest growing tourism destination in the world.[11]

Today, growing at a rate of 13.31%, Kerala is one of the most visited tourism destinations in India.[3][12]

Major attractions[edit]

Beaches[edit]

Main article: Beaches in Kerala

Flanked on the western coast by the Arabian Sea, Kerala has a long coastline of 580 km (360 mi); all of which is virtually dotted with sandy beaches.

Kovalam beach near Thiruvananthapuram was among the first beaches in Kerala to attract tourists. Rediscovered by back-packers and tan-seekers in the 1960s and followed by hordes of hippies in the 1970s, Kovalam is today the most visited beach in the state.[13][14][15]

Other popularly visited beaches[16] in the state include those at Kappad, Alappuzha, Marari Beach(Mararikulam, Alappuzha), Nattika (Thrissur), Vadanappilly beach (Thrissur), Cherai Beach, Beypore beach, Marari beach, Fort Kochi, and Varkala. The Muzhappilangad Beach at Kannur is the only drive-in beach in India. Marari beach was rated as one of the worlds top five HAMMOCK BEACH by National Geographic survey. Payambalam beach is one of the most beautiful beach in Kerala situated in Kannur. Other beaches in Kannur include baby beach, meenkunnu beach, azhikode beach, madaiparra beach, chootath beach, mermaid beach.

Backwaters[edit]

Main article: Kerala Backwaters

The backwaters in Kerala are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast (known as the Malabar Coast). Houseboat or Kettuvallam rides in the backwaters are a major tourist attraction. Backwater tourism is centered mostly around Ashtamudi Lake, Kollam. Boat races held during festival seasons are also a major tourist attraction in the backwater regions.

The backwater network includes large lakes such as the Ashtamudi Lake, the largest among them, linked by 1500 km of canals, both man-made and natural and fed by several rivers, and extending virtually the entire length of Kerala state. The backwaters were formed by the action of waves and shore currents creating low barrier islands across the mouths of the many rivers flowing down from the Western Ghats range.

Backwaters in Kerala for honeymoon and family holiday are quite popular. You may short some best Kerala backwaters tour packages after reading about Kerala backwaters reviews available on various websites.[17]

Hill stations[edit]

Eastern Kerala consists of land encroached upon by the Western Ghats; the region thus includes high mountains, gorges, and deep-cut valleys. The wildest lands are covered with dense forests, while other regions lie under tea and coffee plantations (established mainly in the 19th and 20th centuries) or other forms of cultivation.

The Western Ghats rise on average to 1500 m elevation above sea level. Some of the popular hill stations in the region are Munnar, Vagamon, Paithalmala, Wayanad, Nelliyampathi, Elapeedika, Peermade, Thekkady and Ponmudi.

Wildlife[edit]

Main article: Flora and fauna of Kerala

Most of Kerala, whose native habitat consists of wet evergreen rainforests at lower elevations and highlanddeciduous and semi-evergreen forests in the east, is subject to a humid tropical climate. However, significant variations in terrain and elevation have resulted in a land whose biodiversity registers as among the world’s most significant. Most of Kerala's significantly biodiverse tracts of wilderness lie in the evergreen forests of its easternmost districts. Kerala also hosts two of the world’s Ramsar Convention-listed wetlands: Lake Sasthamkotta and the Vembanad-Kol wetlands are noted as being wetlands of international importance. There are also numerous protected conservation areas, including 1455.4 km2 of the vast Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. In turn, the forests play host to such major fauna as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), leopard (Panthera pardus), Nilgiri tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius), and grizzled giant squirrel (Ratufa macroura).[18] More remote preserves, including Silent Valley National Park in the Kundali Hills, harbour endangered species such as the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), Indian sloth bear (Melursus (Ursus) ursinus ursinus), and gaur (the so-called "Indian bison"—Bos gaurus). More common species include Indian porcupine (Hystrix indica), chital (Axis axis), sambar (Cervus unicolor), gray langur, flying squirrel, swamp lynx (Felis chaus kutas), boar (Sus scrofa), a variety of catarrhineOld World monkey species, gray wolf (Canis lupus), and common palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus). Many reptiles, such as king cobra, viper, python, various turtles and crocodiles are to be found in Kerala—again, disproportionately in the east. Kerala's avifauna include endemics like the Sri Lanka frogmouth (Batrachostomus moniliger), Oriental bay owl, large frugivores like the great hornbill (Buceros bicornis) and Indian grey hornbill, as well as the more widespread birds such as peafowl, Indian cormorant, jungle and hill myna, Oriental darter, black-hooded oriole, greater racket-tailed and blackdrongoes, bulbul (Pycnonotidae), species of kingfisher and woodpecker, jungle fowl, Alexandrine parakeet, and assorted ducks and migratory birds. Additionally, freshwater fish such as kadu (stinging catfish—Heteropneustes fossilis) and brackishwater species such as Choottachi (orange chromide—Etroplus maculatus, valued as an aquarium specimen) also are native to Kerala's lakes and waterways.

Waterfalls[edit]

  • Adyanpara Falls, near Nilambur
  • Aruvikkuzhi, near Maramon, Kozhencherry in Pathanamthitta District
  • Aruvikkuzhi, near Pallickathode, Kottayam District
  • Athirappilly Falls 80 ft (24 m)
  • Charpa Falls
  • Cheeyappara Falls, near Adimali
  • Chethalayam Falls, in Wayanad[19]
  • Kumbhavurutty Falls in Kollam district
  • Lakkom Water Falls
  • Madatharuvi Falls, near Ranny in Pathanamthitta District
  • Marmala waterfall
  • Meenmutty Falls, Thiruvananthapuram
  • Meenmutty Falls 984 ft (300 m), in Wayanad
  • Mulamkuzhi, near Malayattoor in Ernakulam District
  • Panieli Poru waterfalls Ernakulam
  • Palaruvi Falls, 300 ft (91 m) in Aryankavu near Punalur in Kollam district
  • Pattathippara Falls
  • Perunthenaruvi Falls
  • Siruvani Waterfalls Palakkad
  • Soochipara Falls 656 ft (200 m) / Sentinelrock falls, in Wayanad
  • Thommankuthu Falls, near Thodupuzha
  • Thusharagiri Falls
  • Valara Falls, near Adimali
  • Vazhachal Falls, near Athirappilly
  • Vazhvanthol waterfalls Trivandrum

Lighthouses[edit]

Lighthouses are the main centre of attractions of Kerala beaches and coast line. There are 15 lighthouses in the entire state of Kerala. Districts of Kollam, Kannur, Kozhikode, Alappuzha, Thrissur and Thiruvananthapuram have more than one lighthouse.[20]

Major Lighthouses
  • Vizhinjam lighthouse, Thiruvananthapuram
  • Anjengo lighthouse, Thiruvananthapuram
  • Tangasseri Lighthouse, Kollam
  • Kovilthottam Lighthouse, Kollam
  • Alappuzha Lighthouse, Alappuzha
  • Manakkodam Lighthouse, Alappuzha
  • Cochin Lighthouse, Ernakulam(Tallest in the state)
  • Azhikode Lighthouse, Thrissur
  • Chetwai Lighthouse, Thrissur
  • Ponnani Lighthouse, Malappuram
  • Beypore Lighthouse, Kozhikode
  • Kozhikode lighthouse, Kozhikode (Defunct)
  • Cannanore Lighthouse, Kannur
  • Mount Dilly Lighthouse, Kannur
  • Kasargode Lighthouse, Kasargode

Events[edit]

Festivals[edit]

The major festival in Kerala is Onam. Kerala has a number of religious festivals. Thrissur Pooram, Attukal Pongala, Beema Palli Uroos, and Chettikulangara Bharani are the major temple festivals in Kerala. The Thrissur Pooram is conducted at the Vadakumnathan temple, Thrissur. The Chettikulangara Bharani is another major attraction. The festival is conducted at the Chettikulangara temple near Mavelikkara. The Sivarathri is also an important festival in Kerala. This festival is mainly celebrated in Aluva Temple and Padanilam Parabrahma Temple. Padanilam Temple is situated in Alappuzha district of Kerala, about 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from Mavelikkara town. Parumala Perunnal, Manarkadu Perunnal are the major festivals of Christians. Muslims also have many important festivals. Annual festival Thirayattam is conducted Sacred groves and village shrine of south malabar region (kozhikode and malappuram districts) in Kerala. "Thirayattam" is a vibrant Ethnic performing art. it is an admixture of dance,drama, songs,instrumental music,facial and body makeup, satire, martial art and ritualistic function, composed in a harmonizing manner.[21]

Kochi-Muziris Biennale[edit]

Kerala is also known for the many events conducted by the Ministry of Tourism for tourist attractions. Kochi-Muziris Biennale, the first Biennale in India was conducted in Kochi from 12 December 2012 till 13 March 2013.The government contributed about 12-150 million on the event.[22] An International Coir Fest is conducted annually that is aimed at developing the coir industry of Kerala and tourism.

Grand Kerala Shopping Festival[edit]

To further promote tourism in Kerala, the Government of Kerala started the Grand Kerala Shopping Festival in the year 2007.[8] Since then it has become an annual shopping event being conducted in the December–January period. During this period stores and shops registered under the GKSF offer a wide range of discounts, VAT refunds, etc. Along with the guaranteed shopping experience, shoppers are provided with gift coupons for a fixed worth of purchase entering them into weekly and mega lucky draws. As compared to shopping festivals held in other countries, this Festival converts the entire state of Kerala into a giant shopping mall, incorporating not just the big players, but also the small and medium scale industries. Through this shopping festival, the Kerala Government intends to transform the State into a hub for international shopping experience and thereby launch "Shopping Tourism" in the state.

Ayurveda[edit]

Medical tourism, promoted by traditional systems of medicine like Ayurveda and Siddha, is widely popular in the state, and draws increasing numbers of tourists. A combination of many factors has led to the increase in popularity of medical tourism: high costs of healthcare in industrialised nations, ease and affordability of international travel, improving technology and standards of care.

However, rampant recent growth in this sector has made the government apprehensive. The government is now considering introduction of a grading system which would grade hospitals and clinics, thus helping tourists in selecting one for their treatments.[23]

Culture[edit]

Main articles: Arts of Kerala and Culture of Kerala

Kerala's culture is mainly Hindu in origin, deriving from a greater Tamil-heritage region known as Tamilakam. Later, Kerala's culture was elaborated on through centuries of contact with overseas cultures.[24] Native performing arts include koodiyattom, kathakali—from katha ("story") and kali ("play")—and its offshoot Kerala Natanam, koothu (akin to stand-up comedy), mohiniaattam ("dance of the enchantress"), thullal, padayani, thirayattam, and theyyam. Other arts are more religion- and tribal-themed. These include chavittu nadakom, oppana (originally from Malabar), which combines dance, rhythmic hand clapping, and ishal vocalisations. However, many of these art forms largely play to tourists or at youth festivals, and are not as popular among most ordinary Keralites, who look to more contemporary art and performance styles, including those employing mimicry and parody. Additionally, a substantial Malayalam film industry effectively competes against both Bollywood and Hollywood.

Several ancient ritualised arts are Keralite in origin; these include kalaripayattu (kalari ("place", "threshing floor", or "battlefield") and payattu ("exercise" or "practice")). Among the world's oldest martial arts, oral tradition attributes kalaripayattu's emergence to Parasurama. Other ritual arts includeThirayattam, theyyam, poorakkali and Kuthiyottam. Thirayattam is a ritual performing folk aet form of south malabe region in kerala.This vibrant art form blend of dance, music, theatre, satire, facial & body painting, masking, martial art and ritualistic function.Thirayattam enacted i courtyards of "Kaavukal"(sacred groves)and village shrine.

Kuthiyottam is a ritualistic symbolic representation of human bali (homicide). Folklore exponents see this art form, with enchanting well–structured choreography and songs, as one among the rare Adi Dravida folklore traditions still preserved and practised in Central Kerala in accordance with the true tradition and environment. Typical to the Adi Dravida folk dances and songs, the movements and formations of dancers (clad in white thorthu and banyan) choreographed in Kuthiyottam are quick, peaks at a particular point and ends abruptly. The traditional songs also start in a stylish slow pace, then gain momentum and end abruptly.

Kuthiyotta Kalaris', run by Kuthiyotta Ashans (Teachers or leaders), train the group to perform the dances and songs. Normally, the training starts about one to two months before the season. Young boys between 8 and 14 years are taught Kuthiyottam, a ritual dance in the house amidst a big social gathering before the portrait of the deity. Early in the morning on Bharani, after the feast and other rituals, the boys whose bodies are coiled with silver wires, one end of which is tied around his neck and an arecanut fixed on the tip of a knife held high over his head, are taken in procession to the temple with the accompaniment of beating of drums, music, ornamental umbrellas, and other classical folk art forms, and richly caparisoned elephants.

All through the way to the temple tender coconut water will be continually poured on his body. After the circumambulation the boys stands at a position facing the Sreekovil (Sanctum Sanctorum) and begins to dance. This ceremony ends with dragging the coil pierced to the skin whereby a few drops of blood comes out.

On this day just after midday the residents of the locality bring huge decorated effigies of Bhima panchalia, Hanuman and extremely beautiful tall chariots in wheeled platforms, and after having darshan the parties take up their respective position in the paddy fields lying east of the temple.

During the night, the image of Devi will be carried in procession to the effigies stationed in the paddy fields. On the next day these structures will be taken back. A big bazaar is also held at Chetikulangara as part of this festival. Kuthiyottam is the main vazipadu of the Chettikulangara temple, Mavelikkara.

In respect of Fine Arts, the State has an abounding tradition of both ancient and contemporary art and artists.The traditional Kerala murals are found in ancient temples, churches and palaces across the State. These paintings, mostly dating to between the 9th to 12th centuries AD, display a distinct style, and a colour code which is predominantly ochre and green.

Like the rest of India, religious diversity is very prominent in Kerala. The principal religions are Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam; Jainism, Judaism, Sikhism, and Buddhism have smaller followings. The state's historic ties with the rest of the world have resulted in the state having many famous temples, churches, and mosques notably 8 of the world's oldest churches—from the 1st century CE, founded by Thomas the Apostle when he reached Indian shores, the first mosque of India, which existed even before the death of the prophet Muhammad and the oldest active synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations.

Recognising the potential of tourism in the diversity of religious faiths, related festivals and structures, the tourism department launched a "Pilgrimage tourism" project.[25][26] Major pilgrim tourism attractions include Guruvayur, Sabarimala, Malayatoor, Paradesi Synagogue, St. Mary's Forane (Martha Mariam) Church Kuravilangad built in 105 A.D, Attukal Pongala (which has the Guinness record for being the largest gathering of women in the planet), and Chettikulangara Bharani.

See also: Pooram

Advertising campaigns[edit]

Kerala Tourism is noted for its innovative and market-focused ad campaigns.[27] These campaigns have won the tourism department numerous awards, including the Das Golden Stadttor Award for Best Commercial, 2006,[28]Pacific Asia Travel Association- Gold Award for Marketing, 2003 and the Government of India's Best Promotion Literature, 2004, Best Publishing, 2004 and Best Tourism Film, 2001.

Catchy slogans and innovative designs are considered a trademark of brand Kerala Tourism. Celebrity promotions are also used to attract more tourists to the state.[29][30] The Kerala tourism website is widely visited, and has been the recipient of many awards. Recently, the tourism department has also engaged in advertising via mobiles, by setting up a WAP portal, and distributing wallpapers and ringtones related to Kerala through it.[31]

Awards[edit]

The state has won numerous awards for its tourism initiatives. These include:

  • 2016 - ITB-Berlin"s Golden City Gate Gold Award for Kerala tourism
  • 2014 - ITB-Berlin's Golden City Gate Gold Award for Print Campaign[32]
  • 2014 -UNWTO Ulysses Award for Innovation in Public Policy and Governance for Sustainable Tourism[33]
  • 2012 - Kerala Tourism wins silver prize at the Golden Gate Award of the Internationale Tourismus-Börse Berlin[34]
  • 2005 - Nominated as one among the three finalists at the World Travel and Tourism Council's 'Tourism for Tomorrow' awards in the destination category[35]
  • Das Golden Stadttor Award for Best Commercial, 2006
Pacific Asia Travel Association
  • Grand award for Environment, 2006
  • Gold award for Ecotourism, 2006
  • Gold award for Publication, 2006
  • Gold Award for E-Newsletter, 2005
  • Honourable Mention for Culture, 2005
  • Gold Award for Culture, 2004
  • Gold Award for Ecotourism, 2004
  • Gold Award for CD-ROM, 2004 and 2003
  • Gold Award for Marketing, 2003
  • Grand Award for Heritage, 2002
  • Pacific Asia Travel Writers Association
  • International Award for Leisure Tourism, 2000–2001
Government of India
  • Best Performing Tourism State, 2005
  • Best Maintained Tourist-friendly Monument, 2005
  • Best Publishing, 2005
  • Best Marketed and Promoted State, 2004.
  • Best Maintained Tourist-friendly Monument, 2004
  • Best Innovative Tourism Project, 2004
  • Best Promotion Literature, 2004
  • Best Publishing, 2004
  • Best Performing State for 2003, 2001, 2000 and 1999 - Award for Excellence in Tourism.
  • Best Practices by a State Government, 2003
  • Best Eco-tourism Product, 2003
  • Best Wildlife Sanctuary, 2003
  • Most Innovative Use of Information Technology, 2003 and 2001
  • Most Tourist-friendly International Airport, 2002
  • Most Eco-friendly Destination, 2002
  • Best Tourism Film, 2001 ( madivilikkunnu star in pavnlal )
Outlook Traveller - TAAI
  • Best State that promoted Travel & Tourism, 2000–2001
Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry
  • Award for Best Marketing, 2003
  • Award for Best Use of IT in Tourism, 2003
Galileo - Express Travel & Tourism
  • Award for the Best Tourism Board, 2006
  • Award for the Best State Tourism Board, 2003

Muziris Heritage Project[edit]

Muziris Heritage Project is a tourism venture by Tourism Department of Kerala to "reinstate the historical and cultural significance Muziris". The idea of the project came after the extensive excavations and discoveries at Pattanam by Kerala Council for Historical Research.[36] The project also covers various other historically significant sites and monuments in central Kerala.

The nearby site of Kottapuram, a 16th-century fort, was also excavated (from May 2010) as part of the Muziris Heritage Project.[37]

Department of Forests and Wildlife (Kerala)[edit]

Department of Forests and Wildlife (Kerala) : Headquarters and training centre are both located in Thiruvananthapuram city. More information on ecotourism destinations and permissions for trekking including arranging guides can be obtained through the department as well. [2].

Outline of Tourism in India[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Tourism in Kerala" dated 2006-03-08, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)

More spoken articles

  1. ^"Kerala Tourism: Paradises in the world". The Hindu. Retrieved 20 February 2012. 
  2. ^"Tourism beckons". The Hindu. 11 May 2004. Retrieved 9 August 2006. 
  3. ^ ab"Tourist statistics for Kerala"(PDF). Tourism Statistics and lpu. Kerala Tourism Development Corporation. Archived from the original(PDF) on 1 July 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2006. 
  4. ^"Kerala Tourism – Superbrand". Superbrand status of Kerala Tourism brand. Government of Kerala. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2006. 
  5. ^Monday, 18 July 2011 at 1745 hrs IST (18 July 2011). "Andhra Pradesh top tourist destination: Tourism Ministry". Financialexpress.com. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  6. ^http://www.keralatourism.org/destination-wise-foreign-2010.pdf
  7. ^"Tourist statistics – 2008"(PDF). Government of Kerala, Tourism Department. Retrieved 22 October 2010. 
  8. ^ ab"Shopping festival begins". The Hindu. 2 December 2007. 
  9. ^Mohindra 2003, p. 8.
  10. ^Kerala Tourism - Branding a Tourist Destination
  11. ^Kerala is the world's fastest-growing tourism destination says Renuka Choudhry. Domain-b.com (17 August 2004).
  12. ^NDTV - God's own country: Govt launches campaign to pull touristsArchived 17 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^Ayub, Akber (ed), Kerala: Maps & More, Coastal Circuit, 2006 edition 2007 reprint, pp. 96-112, Stark World Publishing, Bangalore, ISBN 81-902505-2-3
  14. ^Govind, M.Harish. "Ramparts by the Arabian Sea". Magazine. The Hindu, 19 June 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2008. 
  15. ^MINUTES OF THE WORKSHOP ON RESPONSIBLE TOURISM FOR KOVALAMArchived 3 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^"Best Beaches of Kerala". irisholidays.com. 2015-02-14. 
  17. ^"7 Best Kerala Backwaters You Should Explore - Travel News India". travelnewsindia.com. 2017-02-21. 
  18. ^(Sreedharan 2004, p. 12).
  19. ^"Major Waterfalls". 
  20. ^"Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships". DGLL. Retrieved 31 August 2015. 
  21. ^"Thirayattam" (folklore Text- malayalam, moorkkanad peethambaran), State Institute of language, Kerala ISBN 978-81-200-4294-0
  22. ^
The official logo of Kerala Tourism
Resorts dot the lengths and breadths of Kerala.
Sithar Kundu View Point at Nelliyampathy, Palakkad Dist. Kerala, South India
Thirayattam (kuttychathan ) An Ethnic Ritual Perforning Art Form In Kerala State, India
Thirayattam (kuttychathan ) An Ethnic Ritual Perforning Art Form In Kerala State, India

Leave a Comment

(0 Comments)

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *