In Essay Citation Chicago
This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.
Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-01-31 01:23:00
General Model for Citing Books in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography System
Footnote or endnote (N):
1. First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.
Corresponding bibliographical entry (B):
Last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.
Book by one author
1. Jack Kerouac, The Dharma Bums (New York: Viking Press, 1958), 128.
Kerouac, Jack. The Dharma Bums. New York: Viking Press, 1958.
Book by multiple authors
Two or more authors should be listed in the order they appear as authors, and not necessarily alphabetically.
2. Scott Lash and John Urry, Economies of Signs & Space (London: Sage Publications, 1994), 241-51.
Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs & Space. London: Sage Publications, 1994.
Translated work with one author
3. Julio Cortázar, Hopscotch, trans. Gregory Rabassa (New York: Pantheon Books, 1966), 165.
Cortázar, Julio. Hopscotch. Translated by Gregory Rabassa. New York: Pantheon Books, 1966.
Book with author and editor
In notes, CMOS prefers the abbreviation of “editor(s)” as “ed.” or “eds.,” and translator(s) as “trans.” In bibliographic entries, these abbreviations are not used. Instead, titles are spelled out in full. This information appears in the MLA Handbook, section 14.103.
4. Edward B. Tylor, Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, ed. Paul Bohannan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), 194.
Tylor, Edward B. Researches into the Early Development of Mankind and the Development of Civilization, Edited by Paul Bohannan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.
Chapter from a single-authored book
CMOS supplies two correct forms for bibliographic entries. Both are noted here.
5. Gloria Anzaldua, “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” in Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera, (San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987): 53-64.
Anzaldua, Gloria. “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.” In Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987.
Anzaldua, Gloria. Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987. See esp. chap. 5, “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.”
Contributions from an edited collection with various authored chapters
When citing work by a single author that appears in a book with multiple authors, the contributing author’s name is cited first, followed by the title of their contribution, the word 'in' and the title of the book, along with the name(s) of the editors, and other standard information.
5. Phillip Appleman, “O Karma, Dharma, Pudding and Pie,” in Good Poems, ed. Garrison Keillor (New York: Penguin, 2002), 12.
Appleman, Phillip. “O Karma, Dharma, Pudding and Pie.” In Good Poems, edited by Garrison Keillor, 12. New York: Penguin, 2002.
Introduction, Preface, or Afterwords in a Book
Unlike other citations for books, bibliographic entries of this kind include the page number range for the part cited.
6. Steven Pinker, introduction to What is Your Dangerous Idea?, ed. John Brockman (New York: Harper Perennial, 2007), xxv.
Pinker, Steven. Introduction to What is Your Dangerous Idea?, xxiii-xxxiii. Edited by John Brockman. New York: Harper Perennial, 2007.
Anonymous works--Unknown authorship
Sources that have no known author or editor should be cited by title. Follow the basic format for "Footnote or Endnote" and "Corresponding Bibliographical Entry" that are exemplified above omitting author and/or editor names and beginning respective entries with the title of the source.
Citing indirect sources
Because authors are generally expected to be intimately familiar with the sources they are citing, Chicago discourages the use of a source that was cited within another (secondary) source. In the case that an original source is utterly unavailable, however, Chicago requires the use of "quoted in" for the note:
7. Ian Hacking, The Social Construction of What? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), 103, quoted in Manuel DeLanda, A New Philosophy of Society (New York: Continuum, 2006), 2.
Self-published or Privately Published Books
Books published by the author should be cited according to information available on the title page or copyright page. In place of publisher, include language such as “self-published” (abbreviated as “self-pub” in notes, but not a bibliography) or “printed by the author” is usually appropriate. For self-published e-books, add the name of the application or device required to read the book or the name of the file format, or both.
Kathleen Long, Chasing Rainbows: A Novel (self-pub., CreateSpace, 2011).
Chicago/Turabian Basics: Notes
Why we include in-text citations and notes
Researchers include brief citations in their writing to acknowledge references to other people’s work. Generally, Chicago uses either footnotes or endnotes (or both) to give credit in text.
- Indicated by a superscript numeral in the text
- Listed in the footnote/endnote in standard font size
- Numbered consecutively
- Placed at the end of a sentence/clause
- Placed after quotation marks and punctuation…
- …Except dashes, where they are placed before
Example of references cited in text:
Great efforts have been put forth to save giant pandas in recent decades. The Chan Foundation for Panda Livelihood contributed over $20,000 to the San Diego Zoo last year to ensure that its Panda Cam would operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.1 President Danny Chan said, “Now people from all over the world can see the fascinating behavior of pandas, such as eating bamboo and sleeping whenever they want.”2
Example of corresponding notes:
1. Danny Chan. My Philanthropic Life: Helping the World Through Panda Rescues (New York: Scribner), 123.
2. Michele Kirschenbaum, “How One Man Saved Many Pandas,” Journal of Animal News 67 (2014): 12.
This chapter provides a general overview of formatting notes using the Chicago Manual of Style. For complete information, refer to Section 14 of the CMoS.
Note structure for a book
*Note: The following author formatting can be applied to other source types, as well.
First name Last name, Book Title (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication): Pages Cited.
Two or three authors
First name Last name and First name Last name, Book Title (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication): Pages Cited.
Four or more authors
￼First name Last name et al., Book Title (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication): Pages Cited.
Editor/translator/compiler with no author
￼First name Last name ed./trans./comp., Book Title (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication): Pages Cited.
*Also see page 2 of this guide.
Editor/translator/compiler with an author
￼Author First name Last name, Book Title, ed./trans./comp. First name Last name (City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication): Pages Cited.
Note structure for a scholarly journal article
￼First name Last name, “Article Title,” Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Year of Publication): Page(s).
￼￼First name Last name, “Article Title,” Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Year of Publication): Page(s), doi: XXXX OR URL.
Note structure for a newspaper/magazine article
￼First name Last name, “Article Title,” Publication Title, Month Date, Year of Publication, Page(s).
Note structure for a thesis or dissertation
First name Last name, “Title of Dissertation” (PhD diss., University Name, Year).
*The CMoS has many suggestions for formatting notes of musical recordings. See Section 14.276.
Note structure for a musical recording
￼First name Last name or Group, Recording Title, recorded Month Date, Year.
Tips for Formatting Your Bibliography
Once you’ve compiled your footnotes or endnotes, you may need to compile these references in a bibliography.
Chicago style bibliographies are:
- Arranged alphabetically
- Placed at the end of a paper, before the index
- Formatted with the word “Bibliography” centered at the top of the page
- You may also use “Works Cited” or “Literature Cited” if works not used in your paper are not listed on this page.