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Anti Smoking Laws Essay Checker

In Ireland, 10 Years of Fresh Air
New York Times June 10, 2014

On the morning of March 29, 2004, global television crews gathered outside a Dublin restaurant stocked with celebrating lawmakers to witness what few thought possible in this welcoming land of brilliant but noxious pubs.

IMO House to go smoke-free
Irish Medical Times - May 4, 2014

IMO members have instructed its Executive to make sure its headquarters in Dublin becomes tobacco free by the end of the year. Speaking on the passed ...

Westport college campus goes smoke free
Mayo Advertiser - April 30, 2014

A college in Westport has become the first third-level campus in the country, and possibly in Europe, to introduce a no smoking policy To our knowledge, Westport College of Further Education is the first third level college in Ireland, or perhaps in Europe, to announce a smoke-free campus ...

Restaurant body calls for total ban on e-cigarettes
Herald.ie - April 25, 2014

"The national consensus in the hospitality sector is for an outright ban. ... asking the association what they should do regarding the banning of e-cigarettes in their ... caused by the smoking of e-cigarettes either between staff and customers or ...

10 years of smoke-free Ireland
World Health Organization (press release) - April 25, 2014

10 years ago, on the 24th of March 2004, Ireland introduced a ban on smoking in all workplaces as the first country in the world. Many countries have since then ...

HSE to ban e-cigs at facilities
Meath Chronicle - April 24, 2014

The decision to ban the use and sale of e-cigarettes in HSE facilities follows a detailed review of their safety and the impact of e-cigarettes on the smoke-free ...

Three out of four say smoking ban effective
Irish Health - April 24, 2014

More than three out of four people believe the workplace smoking ban, now 10 years in ... Since then, many other countries have followed suit with similar bans.

Minister defends delay in passage of anti-smoking Bill
Irish Times (ie) - April 18, 2014

Minister for Health James Reilly has defended the delay in the passage of legislation to prevent smoking in vehicles when children are present. Dr Reilly said care had to be taken with the legislation because of the power of the smoking lobby and its ...

Seanad passes Bill to ban smoking in cars with children
Newstalk 106-108 fm - April 17, 2014

The legislation would extend the workplace smoking ban to any car carrying people ... He says banning smoking in cars carrying children is the vital next step.

Ban cigarette sales in pubs and clubs and at night, report urges
Irish Independent (ie) - April 4, 2014

It also wants the introduction of restricted trading hours for the sale of tobacco. The plan would make it illegal to sell cigarettes between 7am and 9am and after 6pm. The recommendations are contained in a report arising out of its series of hearings

TCDSU to “Actively Oppose” Tobacco-Free Trinity Initiative
The University Times - April 4, 2014

The TFT initiative has sought to evaluate the feasibility of a smoking ban on Trinity grounds partly through assessing smoking habits within the college. From a ...

Beaumont staff to 'police' smoking ban
Irish Medical Times - April 2, 2014

A renewed campaign to enforce compliance with the tobacco-free policy on the campus of Dublin's Beaumont Hospital, introduced in July 2012, is currently ...

Banning smoking in cars and how Ireland can attract the Rugby ...
thejournal.ie - April 2, 2014

Every day the D... and Seanad are sitting, TheJournal.ie brings you the most comprehensive guide to what our lawmakers are getting up to in the Houses of the ...

E-cigarettes could be facing an all-out hospital ban
thejournal.ie - March 31, 2014

At present there are no specific regulations governing electronic cigarettes in Ireland, with the Department of Health saying that they plan to have rules in place ...

Irish pubs keep spark despite a decade smoke-free
Medical Xpress (PhysOrg.com) - March 28, 2014

...Irish pubs keep spark despite a decade smoke-free by Conor Barrins Ten years ago this week, landlord Christy Ruane feared the introduction of the smoking ban in Ireland would stub out his business, and with it the popularity of ...

Leading Irish consultant compares e-cigs to methadone
Irish Independent (ie) - March 27, 2014

A HOSPITAL consultant has compared electronic cigarettes to heroin substitute methadone after revealing that two children arrived in an emergency department after being poisoned by liquid nicotine. ...

'Potential harm' of e-cigarettes to be monitored
Irish Medical Times (ie) - March 27, 2014

The Department of Health will continue to monitor existing and emerging evidence on the potential harm and the potential benefits of e-cigarettes. The EU Tobacco Products Directive does not cover rules on smoke-free environments in relation to e-cigare ...

US academic calls on State to regulate e-cigarettes
Irish Times - March 25, 2014

A Harvard professor has called on the Government to show leadership in the EU by regulating electronic cigarettes as medical devices. Prof Gregory Connolly, director of the Center for Global Tobacco Control at Harvard, argues that if unregulated, e-cigarettes could be the panacea for the tobacco industrys woes by discouraging quitting and encouraging children to take up smoking. However, if regulated, e-cigarettes could offer a miracle for getting people to quit smoking. Prof Connolly was in Dublin yesterday to mark the 10th anniversary of the introduction of the workplace smoking ban at an event in the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI). The reason why I came here is to tell this nation you need to go in and show leadership within the EU. Youve got to pass a law here regulating [e-cigarettes] as medical devices, he told The Irish Times

Call for smoke ban outside all public buildings
Herald.ie - March 25, 2014

IT has been a decade since the smoking ban was introduced, and the ... for smoking in cars where children are present to be completely banned," he said.

Ten years of workplace smoking ban in Republic of Ireland
BBC News - March 24, 2014

Ten years ago the Republic of Ireland became the first country in the world to introduce a workplace smoking ban. People in the Republic got used very quickly to the smoking ban, which has been followed by many other states.

Heart attacks fell by more than 10 per cent after the workplace smoking ban
thejournal.ie-by Nicky Ryan - March 24, 2014

There was a more than 10 per cent fall in heart attack rates since the introduction of the workplace smoking ban, according to the Irish Heart Foundation (IHF).

Smoking ban saves 4000 lives since 2004, says Martin
Irish Times - March 24, 2014

Almost 4,000 lives have been saved because of the introduction of the smoking ban in pubs 10 years ago, Fianna F? leader Miche?Martin told the party ...

Airport and Aviva to join ban on e-cigs unregulated: E-cigarette
Herald.ie - March 24, 2014

THE capital is one step closer to being totally vape-free, with Dublin Airport and the Aviva Stadium becoming the latest places to ban the use of electronic cigarettes. They join Irish Rail, Bus Eireann and Dublin Bus which recently announced that they were banning the practice.

Quitters say ban is unfair, but there is no conclusive evidence on using e-cigarettes to quit
Irish Times - March 24, 2014

Last month, Iarnr?ireann even banned the consumption of e-cigarettes. These battery-powered devices resemble cigarettes and deliver nicotine via inhaled ...

Law banning smoking in cars due in weeks, Reilly says
Irish Times - March 24, 2014

Dr Reilly also said he would like to see e-cigarettes being brought in on a purely medicinal advice. The Government would certainly ban them for under 18.

Call to end legislation delay banning smoking in cars
Irish Examiner - March 24, 2014

... of the workplace ban, more policy measures were needed to achieve a Tobacco Free Ireland and prevent serious health problems in the next generation. ...

Reilly aims for smoke-free society by 2025
RTE.ie - March 24, 2014

Tobacco Free Research Institute Ireland estimates that 3,700 lives have been saved as a result of the smoking ban. The Royal College of Physicians of Ireland ...

Poll: Has the smoking ban changed your attitude to smoking?
thejournal.ie - March 24, 2014

THIS WEEK MARKS the tenth anniversary of the introduction of the smoking ban ... was the then-Health Minister and brought in the change the ban has saved ...

Colleges told to ban smoking on whole campus
Irish Independent - March 23, 2014

UNIVERSITIES and colleges should extend the indoor smoking ban to their entire grounds, an expert group has urged.

A history of smoking bans: Ireland and the world
Irish Times March 22, 2014

1992: a voluntary code is introduced that encourages smoking restrictions in the workplace .

All change in the smoking zone
Irish Times - March 21, 2014

Yet despite the general success of the smoking ban, the habit persists, especially in certain age groups. There was a rise in smoking among 15- to 17-year-olds ...

Ireland should lead the e-cigarette way
Irish Medical Times - March 21, 2014

Health promotion has reached a plateau in helping save smokers' lives and it's time ... Decades later, Micheál Martin introduced a smoking ban, which has been ...

Market Bar is hit with €750 smoking fine
Herald.ie - March 20, 2014

A DUBLIN pub co-owned by celebrity restaurateur Jay Bourke and Electric Picnic founder John Reynolds has been hit with fines for breaking the smoking ban.

Scaremongering or safe? The two sides to banning e-cigarettes in ...
thejournal.ie - March 19, 2014

COULD RESTAURANTS IN Ireland end up banning electronic cigarettes? Currently, e-cigarettes are not illegal, but there is the possibility that individual restaurants might decide themselves if they want people smoking the devices on ...

Time to clear the air over use of e-cigarettes
Irish Examiner - March 18, 2014

Depending on who you talk to, e-cigarettes offer the greatest hope of eliminating or drastically reducing harmful smoking or they are a new way for tobacco ...

What it says in the papers
Irish Independent - March 18, 2014

'Pubs and restaurants on verge of e-cigarette ban' the Irish Examiner also ... smoking ban, pubs and restaurants are to start banning e-cigarettes because of a ...

E-cigarettes - Encouraging smoking
Irish Examiner - March 18, 2014

It is almost a decade since smoking was banned in the workplace and in some ... One of the great benefits of the smoking ban is that those who wish to stop ...

Dr Nina Nyrnes: daughter's smoking hurts her children
Irish Independent - March 17, 2014

You are absolutely right to be concerned about your daughter's smoking and its effects on the ... We have banned it in public places due to this known fact.

E-cigarettes now banned on all buses
Herald.ie - March 17, 2014

Electronic cigarettes have been outlawed on all buses. The news will come as a breath of fresh air for commuters on Dublin Bus and Bus Eireann, as both companies have extended their policy on tobacco smoking to include the prohibition of e-cigarettes and smoking vapour devices. ...

new doll ... same old stereotype
Herald.ie - March 14, 2014

I thought e-cigs were odour-free? If they're banned on the grounds of smell rather than health, why not ban people wearing strong perfume or those who haven't ...

Poll: Should e-cigarettes be banned in all workplaces?
thejournal.ie - March 11, 2014

IRISH RAIL HAVE taken the decision to ban e-cigarettes on all train services and the DART. E-cigarettes are marketed as a way to help people stop smoking but they do contain nicotine and were recently banned for under-18s. But should Irish Rail's ban ...

E-cigs banned from DART and trains
Dublin People - March 10, 2014

IRISH Rail has confirmed that electronic cigarettes are now banned from all its DART and train services. The company says it made the decision following complaints from passengers, ...

Fine Gael TD slams 'HSE smoking police'
Irish Independent March 9, 2014

The tough new anti-smoking rules that the HSE is planning to impose in HSE-run nursing homes have been slammed by Fine Gael party chair, Charlie Flanagan. Mr Flanagan said the rules, which are designed to end the exempted status of nursing homes from the smoking ban, "fail to respect the dignity and liberties of ...

Age Action welcomes campus smoking ban exemption for some ...
thejournal.ie-by Nicky Ryan - March 5, 2014

“There were good reasons why nursing homes and psychiatric facilities were exempt from the original smoking ban, and these reasons have not changed,” ...

E-cigs could 'renormalise' smoking
Irish Health - March 3, 2014

Anti-tobacco campaigner Professor Luke Clancy has warned that the unrestricted availability of electronic cigarettes could undermine the lifesaving achievements of the smoking ban by 'renormalising' smoking in society. Ireland celebrates the tenth anniversary of the ban on smoking in workplaces next month.

"We are lost without him": Family's grief after anti-smoking campaigner Gerry Collins dies
Irish Mirror - March 3, 2014

The QUIT actor, who was diagnosed with terminal lung cancer after first beating throat cancer, passed away on Sunday

Mayo General Hospital to Become Completely Smoke-Free Zone
TopNews New Zealand - February 28, 2014

There have been a number of hospitals like Galway University Hospital, which have become smoke-free in 2012 and Roscommon Hospital that introduced the ...

All Midlands HSE sites to be smoke free from Wednesday
Westmeath Independent - February 28, 2014

All HSE sites in the Midlands are introducing a smoke-free campus policy from today (Wednesday). From that date it will no longer be possible to smoke ...

Cigarette company unveils scary-looking anti plain-pack website
The Journal.ie (ie) - February 21, 2014

A TOBACCO COMPANY has unveiled a new website claiming to offer the ‘plain facts’ on the issue of the revised rules for cigarette packaging being planned by Health Minister James Reilly. The site — designed in a stark grey, white and yellow colour scheme...

'We need to follow UK lead on car smoke ban'
Herald.ie - February 12, 2014

ASH Ireland said a vote by MPs in the British parliament yesterday overwhelmingly in favour of banning smoking in cars in which children are present is a step ...

E-cigarette sales soaring as 50000 smokers make switch
Irish Independent - February 3, 2014

E-cigarettes are battery-operated cartridges which heat up a special liquid to create a ... The Advertising Standards Authority of Ireland said it had asked the ...

Hospital smoking bans are being ignored
thejournal.ie - February 2, 2014

The HSE states that moving towards a tobacco free society will reduce the number of premature deaths from tobacco and result in healthier, longer and better ...

138 jobs for Galway with Rossport Pharmaceutical
CareersPortal - January 31, 2014

Rossport Pharmaceutical, a company that manufactures electronic cigarettes is to create 138 jobs in Co Galway. It is understood that the positions will be ...

State agency to grant-aid e-cigarette production in Connemara
Irish Times - January 31, 2014

As Minister for Health Dr James Reilly considers banning the sale of e-cigarettes to those under the age of 18, State agency Údarás na Gaeltachta is to grant-aid ...

Reilly considers U-18s ban on e-cigarettes
BreakingNews.ie - January 27, 2014

The Health Minister James Reilly is set to ban the sale of e-cigarettes to under-18s. Manufacturers claim e-cigarettes can assist smokers kick the habit of ...

Powerful US lobby group fights cigarette packaging changes
Irish Times - January 25, 2014

The influential Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America in Washington has joined the lobbying campaign against proposals by the Department of Health to ban tobacco advertising on cigarette packets.

HSE says hospitals will be smoke-free by 2015
thejournal.ie - January 6, 2014

ALL 51 HOSPITALS will be smoke-free the end of the year, says the Health Service Executive (HSE). The ban on smoking is only left to be implemented in four ...

St Luke's hospital bans all smoking
Kildare Nationalist - January 6, 2014

St Luke's Hospital in Dublin has officially become a smoke-free campus.

Four more hospital campuses to become smoke-free zones from ...
thejournal.ie - January 3, 2014

Dr Osama Salib, Consultant Radiation Oncologist and Joint Chair of the St Luke's Tobacco Free Campus Working Group, said that the initiative provides an ...

Bill to outlaw tobacco lobbying defeated in Seanad
Irish Times - December 19, 2013

The Government has defeated a Seanad private members Bill to criminalise lobbying of government officials by tobacco manufacturers and their representatives by 25 votes to 22

Reilly pushes for tighter nicotine controls
RTE.ie - December 10, 2013

E-cigarettes should not be marketed as a consumer product, Minister for Health James Reilly has said. He said in some cases e-cigarettes had more nicotine ...

The Midland Regional Hospital Mullingar A Smoke Free Campus!!
Westmeath Independent - November 11, 2013

The Midland Regional Hospital, Mullingar campus became a smoke-free zone on Friday, November 1. Smoking is now not permitted anywhere on the hospital ...

Laois lambasts pubs smoking ban
Leinster Express - November 4, 2013

And next week publicans from across the country will converge on Portlaoise to vent their annoyance at a national rally. This rally has been organised after the grass roots members of the Vintners Federation of Ireland demanded a platform to vent their frustration concerning the Governments proposals on smoking prohibition on their premises.

No ifs, no butts, no smoking... Mullingar hospital goes smoke free
Westmeath Examiner - October 31, 2013

Mr Shu Hoashi, Clinical Director said, Introducing the Smoke Free Campus policy at Mullingar Hospital provides an environment that promotes health and ...

Smoking ban to begin at maternity hospitals
Herald.ie - October 31, 2013

Smoking is to be banned from the grounds of Dublin's three main maternity ... The ban, which will apply to pregnant women, new mothers, visitors and staff, ...

DU Smoke? Leanna Byrne interviews a spokesperson from DU ...
The University Times - October 25, 2013

The freedom of choice is a crucial principle for the new Facebook lobby group Dublin University (DU) Smokers as they are committed to providing a platform for Trinity smokers to oppose the proposed Tobacco Free Trinity (TFT).

Tobacco lobby link to debate in RCPI
Irish Times - October 25, 2013

One of the Republics leading medical organisations that campaigns against smoking has admitted it rented out its premises this week for a debate organised by a UK group that receives funding from the tobacco industry. The Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI) said it was unaware that the Institute of Economic Affairs, which held a debate on smoking in the colleges premises at Kildare Street in Dublin on Wednesday night, receives support from British American Tobacco.

Christopher Snowden: Why our efforts to cut smoking have been a ...
Irish Independent - October 23, 2013

It has banned the sale of 10 packs of cigarettes, introduced a display ban and ... of smoking bans and advertising bans, and the size of health warning labels.

Tobacco Free Trinity Town Hall Meetings Begin The consultation ...
The University Times - October 21, 2013

The first of the Town Hall Meetings on the proposed Tobacco Free Trinity (TFT) Project took place last Wednesday morning at 10am and the voice of those ...

CLIFFORD: If Government is serious it should go the whole hog and ban cigarettes
Irish Independent - October 15, 2013

Again, addicted to a drug the Government refuses to ban. If they give up, it will be on their terms – not the HSE's. And what of patients with mental health problems? In their darkest hour, is some security guard really going to prevent them from ...

FLANAGAN: Government Health plan a real drag for smokers
Irish Daily Mirror - October 12, 2013

...pity the poor non-consultant doctors who are forced to make life-or-death decisions after working 24-hour shifts without the comfort of a smoke. The irony being if they did happen to kill a patient while in a sleep-deprived daze they’d face less sanction...

Healy-Rae furious at smoking ban in Kerry hospital
Kildare Nationalist - October 9, 2013

Healy-Rae furious at smoking ban in Kerry hospital ... The Health Service Executive has confirmed that smoking will be banned on the entire Kerry General ...

Healy-Rae furious at smoking ban in Kerry hospitals
Irish Examiner - October 9, 2013

The Health Service Executive has confirmed that smoking will be banned on the ... Mental Health Act prohibits such a ban as this taking into account their area." ...

Cornelsen, L.; Normand, C.; "Impact of the Irish smoking ban on sales in bars using a large business-level data set from 1999 to 2007," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], October 8, 2013.

Background Ireland introduced comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in 2004. This study evaluates the economic impact of the workplace smoking ban on the value of sales in bars. ... Results The overall impact of the Irish smoking ban on bar sales appears to be very small. The ban was associated with an increase in sales among medium to large bars in the Border-Midland-West (more rural) region of Ireland, and a small reduction in sales among large bars in the more urban, South-East region. We failed to find any evidence of a change in bar sales in the remaining categories studied. Conclusions The results indicate that although some bars saw positive effects and some negative, the overall impact of the smoking ban on the value of sales in bars was negligible. These findings provide further supporting evidence that comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation does not harm hospitality businesses while having positive health effects.

'Tobacco-free' plan for Republic of Ireland
BBC News - October 4, 2013

The Irish health minister has published a plan to make the state "tobacco-free" by 2025. Dr James Reilly has defined a "tobacco-free Ireland" as a state where less than 5% of the population smoke.

Smoking to be banned from everywhere on HSE campuses
Anglo Celt - October 3, 2013

All hospitals and HSE health care facilities in Cavan and Monaghan are to become entirely smoking free zone from next month. The HSE are branding their ...

Health minister wants to make Ireland tobacco-free by 2025
Irish Mirror - October 3, 2013

Launching a campaign to make Ireland tobacco-free by 2025, the health minister compared the introduction of new laws demanding that all tobacco products are sold in plain packaging to the budget.

UCD students vote for smoke-free campus
Irish Times - October 3, 2013

Cigarette breaks by the Belfield lake are one step closer to ending at University College Dublin where students have voted in favour of a smoke-free campus. The vote result means that the UCD Students Union (UCDSU) will support a proposal by the universitys health promotion committee to make the campus smoke free.

They can have the vote when they live here
Irish Independent - October 3, 2013

So, Irish universities are talking about banning smoking on their campuses. This will "encourage students and staff" to think about their smoking, and further ...

Many council playgrounds smoke free
Irish Health - October 3, 2013

Most county council and city council playgrounds have decided to go smoke free, following a request by anti-smoking group, ASH Ireland. According to ASH, two ...

Dublin's two biggest Universities are weighing up plans to become ...
98FM - September 30, 2013

Trinity College is already conducting a study on the feasibility of a smoking ban on its grounds, while the UCD Students Union is holding a referendum on the ...

Maternity hospital grounds to be smoke-free from 2015
Irish Independent - September 25, 2013

PREGNANT women and new mothers who smoke will be banned from doing so on the grounds of the country's three main maternity hospitals.

Tullamore hospital now smoke free
Westmeath Independent - September 3, 2013

The Midland Regional Hospital campus in Tullamore is now a smoke-free zone. The changes came into effect last Sunday, September 1. Since then smoking ...

Trying to 'enjoy' a smoke is just too difficult now
Irish Independent - July 29, 2013

An extension of the smoking ban from the workplace to public areas such as parks ... The ban changed my way of thinking to smoke indoors anywhere now is ...

Smoking Bans on School Campuses and Creche Grounds
TopNews Arab Emirates - July 29, 2013

The new bans are a result of a report that suggested ban introduced in 2000 has done a little to curb smoking rates. The report was made by the UK-based ...

Reilly aims for tobacco-free Ireland by 2025
Evening Echo Cork - July 25, 2013

Health Minister James Reilly said he wants Ireland to become completely tobacco free by 2025.

Review to examine if e-cigarettes should only be sold in pharmacies
Irish Independent - July 15, 2013

THE Department of Health is carrying out a review to see if e-cigarettes should be licensed and only sold in pharmacies under proposals to tighten up the ...

Mark Keenan: Will EU ruling take the puff out of e-cigarette revolution?
Independent.ie July 9, 2013

IN a landmark ruling, the UK has decreed that electronic cigarettes are to be reclassified and regulated as 'medicine'. Ireland will follow next year with December's EU Tobacco Products Directive, calling for similar action by 2014. The rush to regulate the e-cig follows a surge in usage sales doubled last year in America to $1bn for the first time, prompting a leading analyst to predict that they'll outstrip regular cigarettes within a decade.

Cancer society looks for regulation of e-cigarettes
Irish Examiner-June 17, 2013

The Pharmaceutical Society of Ireland advised pharmacies two years ago that, in the absence of regulation, e-cigarettes should not be offered for sale in ...

Sligo Regional Hospital introduce Smoke Free Campus Policy
Leitrim Observer - May 30, 2013

The HSE has set a target of introducing the Smoke Free Campus Policy to all healthcare sites by 2015, and we will introduce this policy at Sligo Regional ...

Limerick smokers urged to oppose prohibition
Limerick Post - May 23, 2013

A MAN who set up a lobby group representing the rights of Irish smokers has called on Limerick smokers to stand up to what he describes as Prohibition extremism in a free society. John Mallon, the spokesman for the group Forest Eireann said he is undertaking a national tour against a backdrop of increasingly restrictive measures on smoking and tobacco, including campaigns to de-normalise the habit.

Smoking at home may cause as many fatalities as road crashes
Irish Times (ie) - May 21, 2013

Smoking in the home may be causing as many fatalities as road traffic collisions according to new research commissioned by the Environmental Protection Agency. The research entitled 'Indoor Air Pollution' shows the concentration of damaging particulates in the air in the homes of those who smoke indoors was six times higher than the World Health Organisation's recommendation for general outdoor air quality. The research was completed by NUI Galway and staff at the University of Aberdeen, the Institute of Occupational Medicine Edinburgh, and the University of Birmingham. It concluded there was a glaring need to address the policy and health implications of smoke in private homes. …

More than 3700 smoking related deaths prevented due to ban
Irish Independent - April 29, 2013

MORE than 3,700 deaths have been prevented in Ireland since the introduction of the smoking ban in March 2004, according to a new study.

Stallings-Smith, S.; Zeka, A.; Goodman, P.; Kabir, Z.; Clancy, L., "Reductions in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality following the national Irish smoking ban: interrupted time-series analysis," PLOS ONE 8(4): e62063, April 24, 2013.

This study found that the smokefree air law in Ireland resulted in lower mortality overall and from heart disease, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The abstract stated, "The national Irish smoking ban was associated with immediate reductions in early mortality. Importantly, post-ban risk differences did not change with a longer follow-up period. This study corroborates previous evidence for cardiovascular causes, and is the first to demonstrate reductions in cerebrovascular and respiratory causes."

Sligo Regional Hospital to become a Smoke Free Campus
Leitrim Observer - April 24, 2013

The Smoke Free Campus policy will apply to all staff, patients, visitors, contractors and anyone who enters the hospital campus or buildings. This will ensure that ...

Kabir, Z.; Keogan, S.; Clarke, V.; Clancy, L., "Second-hand smoke exposure levels and tobacco consumption patterns among a lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community in Ireland," Public Health [Epub ahead of print] April 21, 2013.

Electronic cigarette sales up but risks still unknown
Irish Independent - April 8, 2013

SALES of electronic cigarettes have trebled this year – but smokers are still uncertain ... Electronic cigarettes deliver a nicotine kick without the cancer-causing ...

Plan to renew measures on tobacco, alcohol and sugar
Irish Medical Times (ie) - April 4, 2013

Minister Reilly stated at the publication of ‘Healthy Ireland: A Framework for Improved Health and Wellbeing 2013-2025’, that he intended to bring a memo to Government shortly on a move towards plain-packaged cigarette boxes as an extra measure ...

Gilroy, I.; Donnelly, N.; Matthews, W.; Doherty, K.; Conlon, G.; Clarke, A.T.; Daly, L.; Kelleher, C.; Fitzpatrick, P., "Smoking in vehicles is lower than mobile telephone use while driving, but is socially patterned," Irish Medical Journal 106(4): 118-120, April 2013.

Results
Overall the observed prevalence of both smoking (1.39%) and mobile telephone use (2.56%) was low but the latter was somewhat higher (p<0.01) (Table 1). The observed rate in the south-side location was non-significantly lower for smoking but higher for mobile telephone use (p<0.001). There was no significant variation according to time of day (p>0.05) (Table 1) but more males than females were observed undertaking both activities and most were in the mid age range (Table 2). The majority were in cars rather than in vans or taxis and no lorry-drivers were observed. There was an inverse pattern according to car value for smoking drivers but no clear gradient was observed for mobile telephone use. The rates of smoking according to car value were calculated using the reference information and it was shown that smoking rates decreased markedly as the value of the car rose, from 2.05% in the lowest quartile of value to 0.5% in the highest quartile (p=0.029) but no significant association with car value was observed for mobile telephone usage. Eight adult passengers and just one child were observed as being exposed to a smoking adult driver in the survey.

Kabir, Z.; Daly, S.; Clarke, V.; Keogan, S.; Clancy, L., "Smoking ban and small-for-gestational age births in Ireland," PLoS One 8(3): e57441, March 2013.

Background: Ireland introduced a comprehensive workplace smoke-free legislation in March, 2004. Smoking-related adverse birth outcomes have both health care and societal cost implications. The main aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Irish smoke-free legislation on small-for-gestationa- age (SGA) births. ... Conclusions: A significant reduction in small-for-gestational birth rates both immediately and sustained over the post-ban period, reinforces the mounting evidence of the positive health effect of a successful comprehensive smoke-free legislation in a vulnerable population group as pregnant women.

Smoking ban at Beaumont being ignored
Herald.ie - March 23, 2013

PATIENTS and visitors to a so-called tobacco-free hospital are flouting the ban on smoking, the Herald has learned. Bosses at Dublin's Beaumont Hospital have admitted that smoking on the campus is still widespread, nine months after it declared that it was becoming a ...

Number of pub licences issued last year down 273 on 2011
Irish Times - March 4, 2013

More than 270 Irish pubs closed last year, while the three main categories of off-licences were also down, according to data from the Revenue Commissioners on the number of licences issued. … Mr Rafter said a number of factors over the past decade – the 2004 smoking ban, reductions in drink-driving alcohol limits, a proliferation in off-licences and people drinking at home and, more recently, the economic downturn impacting on disposable income – have fed into the increase in pub closures. …

Study correlates smoking bans with 'successive reductions' in ...
Irish Medical Times - February 28, 2013

Smoking bans are associated with a “consistent pattern of reduction in the risk ... the risk of preterm birth after the introduction of each phase of the smoking ban.

ANALYSIS: Big Tobacco hurt by legal and mindset changes
Irish Examiner - February 22, 2013

In November, a judge ruled that tobacco companies which lied about the dangers of cigarettes must cough up for a public campaign to advertise their deception.

Temple St 1st smoke-free kids' hospital
Irish Health-February 13, 2013

While it is the first smoke-free children's hospital, it joins 18 adult hospitals who have already introduced this rule. According to Dr Fiona Healy, a consultant ...

Health and cost prompt most to quit smoking
The Nationalist-February 13, 2013

Health and cost prompt most to quit smoking. Tweet ... "In relation to children, we know that those exposed to second-hand smoke alone are at risk of respiratory ...

Court to decide if 'pagoda-style' smoking area breaches rules
Irish Independent - January 31, 2013

THE High Court has been asked to decide whether a pagoda style smoking area in the courtyard of a Donegal pub breaches the smoking ban. The "Fisherman's Inn" in Main Street, St Johnston, erected a wooden structure with a perspex type roof which the health authorities say is effectively a room within a room because it is surrounded by four walls of the main premises. ...

Smoking ban for motorists with children in cars
RTE.ie - January 12, 2013

Legislation to ban smoking in cars where children are passengers may be ready by the end of the month. Independent Senator John Crown and other campaigners have said they have met Department of Health officials. …

Smoking ban may be extended to cars where children are present
Newstalk 106-108 fm - January 12, 2013

The Health Minister has confirmed that he plans to extend the smoking ban to ... Passengers and drivers face fines of €3,000, if they smoke in a commercial or ...

Mixed reaction to smoking ban move
Irish Times - January 12, 2013

Anti-smoking campaign group ASH Ireland has welcomed reports that new legislation to ban smoking in cars with children could be enacted later this year.

Legislation approved to ban smoking in cars with children present
The Nationalist - January 12, 2013

Radical legislation banning smoking in vehicles carrying children has been ... The Irish Cancer Society has welcomed plans for the extended smoking ban and ...

Drop smoking ban
Leinster Express - December 13, 2012

Cllr Jerry Lodge disagreed, saying that the councillors were leaders in the community and as smoking is bad for your health the hospital were right to ban it ...

Calls to drop outdoor smoking ban at hospital
Offaly Express - December 12, 2012

Kicking the Habit Amy Byrne, Sacred Heart School, Portlaoise helps to launch the smoke free campus at Midland Regional Hospital, Portlaoise with Finola Shiel ...

HSE to ban smoking on hospital grounds
Laois Nationalist - September 18, 2012

Circulars seen by the Laois Nationalist have been issued to all staff members for when the 'no smoking' ban comes into force, with just a few exemptions in ...

Call For Smoke Free Playgrounds
North County Leader Newspaper - September 11, 2012

In an effort to maintain this family centred focus of our parks, the County Council has decided to adopt a smoke free policy in all of our local authority controlled ...

Smoke free campus to be launched at LGH
Donegal Democrat - September 10, 2012

With the imminent launch of a Smoke Free Campus at Letterkenny General Hospital, Elaine Robinson, Smoking Cessation Officer, LGH, offers some startling ...

Eight people a day caught breaking rules on smoking at Limerick Regional Hospital
Limerick Leader - September 7, 2012

AN average of eight people a day were observed smoking in the grounds of the Mid-Western Regional hospital after the practice was outlawed, according to statistics. …

Should we stub out smoking forever?
Cork News - September 6, 2012

Ireland's smoking ban in public places has been a spectacular success, but with hundreds of ... That's like banning cars because they cause accidents. Where ... If they banned that, think about the huge revenue they'd be turning their back on." ...

Letterkenny General Hospital campus smoking ban to begin next week
Highland Radio - September 6, 2012

Letterkenny General Hospital campus smoking ban to begin next week ... the St Conal's Hospital Campus are to become completley smoke free from next week ...

Smoking ban swings into 100 playgrounds
Irish Independent - August 27, 2012

SMOKING has been banned in more than 100 playgrounds around the ... that a smoking ban would "be an excellent initiative designed to protect children".

McCaffrey, M.; Goodman, P.; Gavigan, A.; Kenny, C.; Hogg, C.; Byrne, L.; McLaughlin, J.; Young, K.; Clancy, L., "Should any workplace be exempt from smoke-free law: the Irish experience," Journal of Environmental and Public Health [Epub ahead of print], 2012.

Background. In 2004, the Irish Government introduced national legislation banning smoking in workplaces; with exemptions for "a place of residence". This paper summarises three Irish studies of exempted premises; prisons, psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes. Methods. PM2.5 and nicotine were measured in nursing homes and psychiatric hospitals, in addition to ultrafine particles in the hospitals. In the prisons, officers (n = 30) completed exhaled breath Carbon Monoxide (CO) measurements. Questionnaires determined officers' opinion on introducing smoking prohibitions in prisons. Nursing home smoking policies were examined and questionnaires completed by staff regarding workplace secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Findings. Ultrafine particle concentrations in psychiatric hospitals averaged 130,000 per cm3, approximately 45% higher than Dublin pub levels (85,000 per cm3) pre ban. PM2.5 levels in psychiatric hospitals (39.5 ìg/m3) were similar to Dublin pubs (35.5 ìg/m3) pre ban. In nursing homes permitting smoking, similar PM2.5 levels (33 ìg/m3) weremeasured, with nicotine levels (0.57 ìg/m3) four times higher than "non-smoking" nursing homes (0.13 ìg/m3). In prisons, 44% of non-smoking officers exhibited exhaled breath CO criteria for light to heavy smokers. Conclusions. With SHS exposure levels in some exempted workplaces similar to Dublin pubs levels pre ban, policies ensuring full protection must be developed and implemented as a right for workers, inmates and patients.

Councils move to ensure playgrounds 'smoke free'
Irish Times - July 24, 2012

FINGAL COUNTY Council has become the first local authority in the State to formally adopt a policy ensuring all of its children's playgrounds are “smoke-free” ...

Ban on smoking at open-air concerts
Irish Times - July 24, 2012

Sir, – Brian Kelly (July 20th) will be pleased to know that measures to limit smoking at outdoor events are already in force here in Finland, the actions being ...

Majority want cig sales ban
Irish Health - July 24, 2012

Majority want cig sales ban. ... 'Ban smoking in cars with kids'. ... Nearly two out of three people believe that smoking should be completely banned by 2025, ...

Playground smoking ban in force next week
Herald.ie - Jul 4, 2012

A PLAYGROUND smoking ban is expected to be imposed across north Dublin ... the footsteps of New York where smoking has been banned in all public parks, ...

Beaumont becomes a tobacco-free campus
Businessandleadership.com - July 3, 2012

Beaumont Hospital will become a tobacco-free campus from tomorrow – 4 July – as the hospital moves to create a healthy, clean and safer environment for ...

Fine Gael chairman Flanagan attacks proposed ban on smoking in ...
Irish Independent - Jun 30, 2012

... Flanagan has attacked a proposed new law banning smoking in cars. ... saying: "Politics should be about positive achievements rather than just ban, ban, ban. …

Micheál Martin to pick up FF award for enacting smoking ban
BreakingNews.ie - Jun 30, 2012

Fianna Fáil leader Micheál Martin is to receive an award for political leadership from the partys womens group this afternoon. …

Government approves law to ban smoking in cars with children
Insideireland.ie - June 27, 2012

The Government yesterday approved the drafting of new laws that will ban ... are to debate new legislation next month calling for smoking to be banned in cars ...

Government to go ahead with car smoking ban
Newstalk 106-108 fm - June 26, 2012

The government is to go ahead with plans to ban smoking in cars carrying ... Minister James Reilly said he was examining banning smoking in parks and on ...

Smoking ban 'has saved over 1700 lives'
Irish Independent - June 7, 2012

MORE than 1700 people are alive today thanks to anti-smoking measures introduced in recent years, new research has revealed, writes Eilish O'Regan.

CALL TO RELAX SMOKING BAN AT CITY HOSPITALS
Galway News - May 23, 2012

The chairman of the regional health forum west says the smoking ban enforced ... He said that the blue line policy, which bans smoking on hospital grounds, was ...

Patients hide in bushes to evade smoking ban
Irish Examiner (ie) - May 23, 2012

Patients dressed in pyjamas at a smoke-free hospital campus are hiding behind trees and bushes to smoke, chairman of the HSE West Forum has said.

Currie, L.M.; Blackman, K.; Clancy, L.; Levy, D.T., "The effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Ireland using the IrelandSS simulation model," Tobacco Control [Epub ahead of print], May 26, 2012.

This study attempted to quantify the effect of tobacco policy between 1998 and 2010 on smoking prevalence reductions by 2010. The study used IrelandSS, which is an adapted version of SimSmoke, a dynamic simulation model. For tobacco control policies implemented between 1998 and 2010, there was a 22 percent relative reduction in smoking prevalence and 1716 fewer smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) by 2010 increasing to a projected 29 percent relative reduction in prevalence and 50,215 fewer SADs by 2040. ...

Security to enforce ban on smoking at Limerick hospitals
Limerick Leader - May 8, 2012

Local councillor Richard Butler agrees with the ban on smoking by visitors but says allowing patients to smoke only when permitted by senior doctors is ...

Ban on smoking in parks would 'save our children'
Herald.ie - May 2, 2012

By Clodagh Sheehy HEALTH Minister James Reilly is determined to press ahead with his outdoor smoking ban for parks and beaches. …

Cornelsen, L.; Normand, C., "Impact of the smoking ban on the volume of bar sales in Ireland - evidence from time series analysis," Health Economics 21(5): 551- 561, May 2012.

This Irish study found a decline in bar sales by -4.6 percent following implementation of a clean indoor air law. The authors stated, "Although the -4.6 percent decline in the volume of sales is not marginal, it is small in comparison to the total reduction in the sales over the years from 2001 to 2009. The drop from the peak of the series in May 201 to the bottom of the series in November 2009 is -48 percent and half of that if the recessionary period is excluded from the series with most of the fall attributable to constantly increasing prices above the inflation rate."

Declan Lynch: Last luxury goes up in a puff of smoke
Irish Independent - Apr 29, 2012

THE suggestion by Minister James Reilly that smoking should be banned on beaches and in public parks ... mainly through the introduction of the smoking ban.

Proposed Ban On Smoking In Public Places Criticised
Build.ie - April 24, 2012

Plans to ban smoking in parks and on beaches has been described as dangerous by a pro-smoking lobby. Forest Éireann said, unlike previous restrictions on ...

Pro-Smoking Group Lashes Out At Reilly's Anti- Smoking Crusade
TopNews New Zealand - April 24, 2012

It seems that it would not be easy for the Health Minister, James Reilly to impose smoking ban in open areas as there is rising opposition to the same. …

Irish parks and beaches smoking ban plan condemned
BBC News - April 24, 2012

A plan by the Irish government to ban smoking in parks and on beaches has been condemned by a pro-smoking lobby group. Forest Eireann claimed it was ...

Cancer Society welcomes proposal to ban smoking in parks and on ...
BreakingNews.ie - Apr 23, 2012

The Irish Cancer Society is welcoming proposals by the Health Minister Dr James Reilly to introduce a ban on smoking in parks and on beaches. …

Open air smoking ban likely
Irish Health - Apr 21, 2012

Health Minister James Reilly is proposing to extend the smoking ban to a wide range of outdoor areas. Under his proposals, smoking would be banned in places ...

Picture a car filled with second-hand smoke and child in the seat
Irish Independent - Apr 14, 2012

I smoked when I was a medical student, when I was a young doctor, ... by a simple short amendment to the existing smoking ban -- would extend it to include ...

New bill wants to make smoking in cars illegal...
JOE - April 10, 2012

Lighting up a cigarette in your car may soon become a thing of the past if a new bill has anything to do with it. Yes, it sounds like a nightmare but a smoking ban in your car could become a reality sooner than expected. …

Smoking legislation to be debated
Insideireland.ie - April 10, 2012

By David Richardson The Seanad are to debate new legislation next month calling for smoking to be banned in cars with children in. The legislation comes 10 ...

Seanad to debate proposed ban on smoking in cars with children
BreakingNews.ie - April 10, 2012

The Seanad will debate new legislation next month calling for smoking to be banned in cars where children are present. It comes 10 years after the workplace ...

Playgrounds set to soon become smoke-free zones
Fingal Independent - March 27, 2012

FINGAL'S PLAYGROUNDS may soon be smoke-free zones with the council committing to expanding a pilot scheme to ban smoking from play areas. …

More homes are now smoke-free thanks to cigarette ban
Irish Independent - March 27, 2012

The German study pointed out: "Opponents of workplace or public smoking bans have argued that smoke-free policies -- albeit intended to protect non-smokers ...

Kent, B.D.; Sulaiman, I.; Nicholson, T.T.; Lane, S.J.; Moloney, E.D., "Acute pulmonary admssions following implementation of a national workplace smoking ban," Chest [Epub ahead of print], March 1, 2012.

This Irish study found that overall hospital admissions for pulmonary illness decreased from 439 per 100,000 population to 396 per 100,000 population following implementation of the country's clean indoor air law. Admissions with acute coronary syndrome (adjusted RR 0.82; 95%CI 0.70-0.97; p=0.02), but not stroke (adjusted RR 0.93; 95%CI 0.73-1.20; p=0.60), were also reduced.

McNabola, A.; Eyre, G.J.; Gill, L.W., "Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment," Environment International [Epub ahead of print], February 22, 2012.

This Irish study examined air inside eight pubs, their designated smoking and smokefree areas, and their noncomplying smoking areas. Designated smoking areas had concentrations of benzene which ranged from 5.1-5.4 µg/m3; smokefree areas, 1.42-3.01 µg/m3; and smoking areas in breach of law, 49.5 µg/m3, with corresponding "smokefree" areas, 7.68 µg/m3. The authors wrote that the legal definitions of designated smoking areas were weak and called for more governmental guidance in defining the parameters of those spaces.

Call for ban on smoking in playgrounds
BreakingNews.ie - Feb 21, 2012

An anti-tobacco group has called for a nationwide smoking ban in children's playgrounds from Ash Wednesday. Ash Ireland has asked all county and city ...

More houses now imposing a home smoking ban
thejournal.ie - Feb 21, 2012

A new study found that since Ireland introduced the smoking ban in March 2004, the percentage of smokers who banned smoking in the home rose by about 25 per ...

Cardiac deaths decline, but can we do more?
Irish Times - Feb 20, 2012

Research closer to home suggests we should not underestimate the impact of the smoking ban. Active and passive smoking are known causes of coronary heart ...

Less people smoking at home following ban
Insideireland.ie - February 13, 2012

1Centre for Behavioural and Cognition Research, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China
2John Molson School of Business, Concordia University, Montreal QC, Canada H3G 1M8

Copyright © 2015 Biao Luo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Despite the perceived success of educational campaigns and smoking bans in public places in China, the actual effects have not been investigated. This study examines the effects of the two policies by major characteristics of smokers and whether the affected smokers have intention to quit smoking. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 17 cities in China and 16,616 participants were selected using multistage stratified sampling. Logistic regression models were used to examine the effects of educational campaigns and smoking bans in public places on their intention to quit smoking. Results show that the Chinese government should try every means to build its tobacco control publicity and implement various forms of public educational campaigns to enhance smokers’ knowledge of the health consequences of smoking. In addition, China should emphasize the enforcement of the existing smoking prohibitions and regulations by implementing local tobacco control legislation and total prohibitions in all public places and workplaces.

1. Introduction

Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of death and diseases in the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), nearly six million people die annually from cigarette smoking [1]. China is the largest cigarette production and consumption country in the world, accounting for 38% of the world’s cigarette production and sales. At present, approximately 320 million, nearly one-third of the world’s smokers, are in China, and an estimated 738 million people are exposed to secondhand smoke [2, 3]. Approximately one million people die of tobacco induced diseases in China each year [4], a number that is projected to reach two million by the year 2020 [5]. If current smoking rate continues, according to the WHO, 100 million people in China under the age of 30 will die from tobacco use [6]. Thus, the tremendous pressure from tobacco induced diseases and death makes tobacco control (TC) an urgent concern in China. In addition, China plays a critical role in global TC efforts given the size of Chinese smokers.

The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has emphasized the importance of combining tobacco demand reduction with tobacco supply restrictions [7]. TC policies have been successfully carried out in the Western countries, and the lessons from these countries were helpful in drafting TC policies in developing countries such as China [8]. Given the unprecedented challenges and motivation on TC by Chinese government, this study focuses on examining the effects of public educational campaigns and smoking bans in public places in China.

1.1. Related Tobacco Control Policies in China

Smoking bans are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations that prohibit tobacco smoking in workplaces and other public spaces. Educational campaigns are those utilizing integrated components to deliver messages (e.g., public service announcements, media literacy training, and classroom discussion), integrating the campaign into other tobacco education, counseling, and cessation. Smoking bans in public places have been ignored in China. China signed the FCTC in October 2003 and enforced the policy in 2006. In March 2011, the Chinese Ministry of Health (MOH) announced a new regulation of smoking bans in public places [9]. More than two years later, in December 2013, the Chinese government issued a notice, which was considered as the most strict regulation in China, implementing the smoking bans in public places in all geographical areas [10]. However, by far only 13 cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, and Guangzhou, have adopted the legislation that enforces the ban of smoking in public places [11].

The educational campaigns on TC by health warning labels and antitobacco mass media campaigns were not promising either. Only text warnings have been used in the cigarette package without any pictorials. Detailed information about tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the cigarette packages may mislead the public that a particular tobacco product is less harmful.

1.2. The Effects of Educational Campaigns and Smoking Bans in Public Places

Numerous theoretical studies and practices found that educational campaigns were effective in reducing tobacco use. Durkin et al. revealed that educational campaigns could promote quitting among adults and reduce adult smoking rates [12]. The recently released Surgeon General’s report concluded that adequately funded antitobacco media campaigns could reduce tobacco use among the youth [13]. Similarly, the CDC’s Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs showed that public educational campaigns were an integral part of efforts to prevent the initiation of tobacco use and to encourage tobacco cessation [14]. Clearly, substantial evidence pointed to the effectiveness of educational campaigns in reducing the number of the youth who start smoking, increasing the number of smokers who quit, and making the tobacco industry marketing less effective, thereby saving lives and health care dollars [15, 16].

Smoking bans in public places have also been found effective in reducing tobacco consumption among smokers and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke [17]. These bans also contributed to the prevention of smoking uptake among children and young people by reshaping the perceived social acceptability of smoking [18]. The effectiveness of smoke-free policies was evident in numerous studies and countries [17, 19–21]. Moreover, in North America, Western Europe, and Australia, many of the TC efforts have focused on clean indoor-air laws, and the experiences of those regions are instructive to other countries which started working on TC [22–24].

1.3. This Study

Earlier studies on the effects of smoking bans and educational campaigns mainly focused on the influence of these policies on smoking behavior such as reducing smoking and choosing low-tar cigarette [25]. Some studies explored the difference in the scope of policy implementation (e.g., hospitality industry versus all workplaces) and difference in the effects of comprehensive and partial TC policies [26–28]. Other studies investigated the unintended consequences of TC policies, such as perceived stigmatization of smokers, trends in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking initiation, smoking prevalence, smoking consumption, and smoking cessation, and the impact of smoke-free legislation on voluntary home smoking bans [29–31].

In this study, we explore the TC policies in China by examining the role of individual-level factors in the effects of TC policies. Considering that most of the past studies were conducted in high-income countries, evaluation of the increased adoption of TC policies must be reviewed in low- and middle-income countries to examine the possible difference [32]. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have been done on individual-level factors associated with the effects of TC policies in China. Feng et al. used a sample of adult smokers in six Chinese cities to identify individual-level factors associated with intention to quit smoking [33]. However, they did not examine the effects of the two TC policies. Moreover, other earlier studies could not provide a comprehensive examination due to the lack of large-scale survey data [33–35]. In addition, the present study included children (household member aged 15 to 18), which is also a further step from the literature. Our study is the first one to completely examine the effects of TC policies on quitting smoke and the role of individual demographic characteristics in TC policies.

2. Materials and Methods

This study aims to explore, from a large-scale representative sample data, the relation between the individual-level factors of smokers and the effects of educational campaigns and smoking bans in public places and whether these two policies can drive smokers to quit smoking.

2.1. Study Design and Sampling

A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2010 to January 2011 in 17 cities in Anhui Province. Anhui lies in China’s most economically developed regions (Eastern region), while economically it belongs to China’s central economic zone. The primary sampling units were households and one household member aged 15 to 70 was randomly selected for the interview. The other inclusion criteria were as follows: (i) being ethnically Chinese and (ii) current smokers, either occasional or daily. The sample size was determined with the objective to ensure high statistical reliability and representativeness; the 95% CI should not exceed 5% of a key indicator estimate. From those criteria, the sample size was determined to be 24,000 and the sampling error was 0.63%, and a total of 16,616 valid questionnaires were collected (response rate of 69.2%). Of the 16,616 smokers interviewed, smokers from urban areas accounted for a little more than half of the sample (8,502 subjects or 51.2%), and 8,114 (48.8%) subjects were from rural areas. This is consistent with the sixth Chinese Census data. Most of the sample had a high family income (≥¥30000) per year (62.0%), which is also consistent with the sixth Chinese Census data.

The sampling was carried out using a three-stage stratified sampling process. Firstly, all the areas were grouped into two categories (urban area and rural area). Secondly, probability sampling in urban areas was conducted by selecting primary sampling units (blocks); then a sample of the required number of households was selected in each block with 800 to 1,000 households. Thirdly, in rural areas, sampling was refined to the village level. Using map sampling method, a number of villages were randomly selected from the 36 counties. Then, a sample of the required number of households was selected according to the population size of the villages using probability sampling.

2.2. Data Collection and Quality Control

In the actual survey, eligible respondents were asked to complete a face-to-face interview with a standard questionnaire. The questionnaires were designed based on the existing literature and were translated into Chinese for the purpose of comparison and consistency with relevant studies. In households with more than one age-eligible person available, the subject unit was selected randomly. Each interview took about 10–15 minutes. The survey was conducted anonymously and the subjects could not be identified. All participants received a gift (RMB ¥5) as a monetary incentive for participation.

Strict quality control was taken during the whole process of sampling. All interviewers and supervisors were trained to ensure that the survey was consistent with the design, and a pilot study was carried out in one city before the actual survey. Some participants might see/hear the smoking bans/educational campaigns unconsciously. Although at the time of the survey, we just measured participants who claimed the smoking bans/educational campaign had a positive effect on them, when we checked the data accuracy and input the data, we only kept the data which showed consistency between subject’s actual attitude and their verbal expression. All questionnaires were audited at each survey site to ensure 100% completion. Before data entry, 10% of them were reviewed by phone to ensure accuracy. All questionnaires were input by trained data entry personnel and data entry quality was assured by double data entry check. An experienced supervisor monitored the whole process of data entry to control the entry error rate under .

2.3. Measures

Intention to quit is the dependent variable in our study. Intention to quit was based on the question: “Do you plan to quit smoking?” Smokers who responded “within the next month,” “within the next 6 months,” or “sometime in the future after 6 months” were considered to have the intention to quit (coded as 1), whereas smokers who responded “not planning to quit” or “do not know” were considered to have no intention to quit (coded as 0). This measure was dichotomized for two reasons. First, our primary interest was to understand TC policy’s effect on smoker’s intention to quit, rather than by what time they were going to quit. Second, the frequency distribution of this measure was highly skewed with the majority being in the no intention category.

The factors driving the effectiveness level of the two policies (smoking bans and educational campaigns) are also explored in this study. The perceived effects of educational campaigns and smoking bans in public places were assessed by asking the question: “Do you think that educational campaigns (smoking bans in public places) have a positive effect on you?” Smokers who responded “reduce smoking,” “choose low-tar cigarettes,” or “choose low hazard cigarettes” were considered to be affected by the policies (coded as 1), whereas smokers who responded “smoke more,” “no effect,” or “do not know” were considered not to be affected (coded as 0).

The major independent variables in this study included subjects’ demographic information, such as gender, population density, age, education, income, and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Age was categorized into three groups (18–29, 30–49, and 50+ years) and household income was divided into two groups (<¥30,000 and ≥¥30,000). Education was categorized into three groups (low: illiterate or having only primary school education; medium: high school or secondary school education in technique; and high: university or junior college education). Number of cigarettes smoked per day was categorized into three groups (1–10, 11–20, and 21+).

2.4. Statistical Analysis

Sample weights were simply calculated as the inverse of its probability to be selected; the final weight for a sampled individual was the number of people in the city population and the sampling category represented by that individual [36]. SPSS for Windows version 17.0 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for all data analyses. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to examine the distribution of demographic characteristics in our sample. In the first analysis, we applied multivariate logistic regression models to examine the factors associated with the effects of educational campaigns and smoking bans in public places. Following the first study, we also employed the logistic regression models to determine to what extent intention to quit smoking was caused by educational campaigns and smoking bans in public places. All categorical variables were changed to dummy variables before entering the model. A level of is used to determine the level of statistical significance. For this research, only smokers were included in the analyses.

2.5. Ethics Statement

This work was approved by the Ethics Committee of University of Science and Technology of China. Trained interviewers clearly explained the significance, aims, and content of the survey to the potential participants at the beginning of each survey. The survey is household interviews, nonpublic, internal, and we promised to guarantee absolute privacy. The face-to-face interviews were then conducted if the participants signed informed consent. The participants could decide to withdraw from the interview anytime during the survey.

3. Results

Despite the perceived success of educational campaigns and smoking bans in public places in China, minimal rigorous analysis on their effects has been conducted. This study examines how the major characteristics of smokers affect the effectiveness of these two policies and whether these two policies can drive smokers to quit smoking. Such knowledge would have the potential to guide future TC policies and programs toward increasing the quitting rate in China. We hope our scientific work and results become a useful tool for advocating appropriate policy changes and will promote the FCTC implementation in China.

3.1. Effects of Smokers’ Characteristics on the Effectiveness of Educational Campaigns and Smoking Bans

Table 1 shows the demographic characteristics of the survey sample. Of the 16,616 smokers interviewed, 16,098 are males (96.9%) and 518 are females (3.1%). The 30–49 years age group accounts for 56.2% of the sample. Most of the subjects have a low level of education (63%). Smokers from rural areas account for nearly half of the sample (48.8%). Most of the sample has a high family income (≥¥30000) per year (62.0%). Almost half of the smokers surveyed (48.6%) smoke 11–20 cigarettes per day.

Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the survey sample.

Table 2 shows the results of a multivariate logistic regression that examines the factors associated with the effects of educational campaigns and smoking bans in public places. In the left section of educational campaigns, 49.5% of smokers thought that educational campaigns had a positive effect on themselves. The proportion of smokers affected by educational campaigns does not significantly differ across gender and household income. The difference between the 15–29 age group (reference group) and the 30–49 age group (OR = 1.12) is significant at the level. This may be because the 15–29 age group belongs to the youth group and the harm caused by smoking has not been recognized by them. While the 30–49 age group is mainly middle-aged smokers, they are more concerned about their health status; therefore, they are more sensitive to the knowledge involved in the educational campaigns. Comparing with smokers with a low education level, the effect of educational campaigns on those with either medium education level (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.11–1.30) or a high education level (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.14–1.72) is more significant. This shows that people with higher level of education are more knowledgeable; as a result, their understanding of the dangers of tobacco is more comprehensive, holding a more positive attitude toward educational campaigns; therefore, the greater likelihood is that they are affected. Smokers from urban areas are significantly less affected by educational campaigns (OR = 0.81) than those from rural areas. On the one hand, because rural residents are affected by the cultural level, the knowledge of the harm of tobacco is at a lower level. On the other hand, educational campaigns play a more important role for those who do not understand the dangers of smoking, so health educational campaigns in rural areas have a higher sensitivity. Smokers who tend to be heavy smokers are less likely affected by educational campaigns than light smokers.

Table 2: Result of logistic regression examining factors associated with the effects of educational campaigns and smoking bans in public places.

The last three columns (right section) of Table 2 show the results of the logistic regression that examines the factors associated with the effects of smoking bans in public places. The figures show that 66.2% of cigarette consumers thought smoking bans in public places had a positive effect on themselves. The proportion of smokers between the 15–29 age group (reference group) and the 50+ age group (OR = 0.81) is significant at the level. Comparing with smokers from rural areas (reference group), smokers from urban areas are less likely affected by smoking bans in public places (OR = 0.82). This may be due to the fact that the current China’s promotion strategy of tobacco control education is relatively simple; at the same time, smoking bans in public places are in their infancy, and urban areas need deeper and more targeted strategy. Smokers who tend to smoke a few cigarettes per day are less likely affected by smoking bans in public places. It shows that the greater the amount of cigarettes smoked, the greater the smokers’ tobacco addiction, and the higher the degree of their dependence on nicotine, so that smokers are less likely to be influenced by other factors (smoking bans and educational campaigns). No significant difference is noted across gender, education, and household income. This survey results are somewhat to our surprise; to the factors of gender, education and household income, the possible reason is the current smoking bans in public places in Anhui Province are only advocate prescriptive, lacking appropriate executive body, and there are no specific penalties; thus, smoking in public places is a very common phenomenon. Therefore, its influence is relatively weak.

3.2. Effects of Educational Campaigns and Smoking Bans on Intention to Quit Smoking

Table 3 shows the results of the logistic regression that examines the factors associated with the intention to quit smoking. Smokers affected by educational campaigns and smoking bans in public places are more likely to have the intention to quit (OR = 2.58, 95% CI 2.27–2.94 and OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.14–1.51, resp.). It indicates that both educational campaigns and smoking bans are effective in influencing smoker’s behavior positively. It is not surprising that male smokers (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.57–0.97) have significantly less intention to quit smoking than female smokers; the social and culture factors can explain such pattern. Smokers from urban areas have significantly more intention to quit smoking (OR = 1.24) than smokers from rural areas (reference group). Relatively higher education and healthy lifestyle in urban areas can help smokers recognize the damage of smoking more comprehensively; as a result, they are more likely to quit smoking. Moreover, smokers who smoke 11–20 cigarettes per day have significantly less intention to quit smoking (OR = 0.80) than smokers who smoke 1–10 cigarettes per day (reference group). The level of addiction should be the cause behind the finding. Other factors associated with stronger intention to quit include medium and high education level and higher household income. The social class difference could lead to such result that high social class (high education and high household income) is more likely to quit smoking. However, the proportion of smokers with the intention to quit smoking is not significantly different for heavy smokers and age factors.

Table 3: Results of logistic regression examining factors associated with any intention to quit smoking.

4. Discussion

The findings are representative and generalizable owing to the sampling design and the large sample size. Approximately half of the survey respondents thought that educational campaigns had a positive effect on themselves, and only one in three current smokers thought that smoking bans in public places had no effect. Smokers who were affected by the TC policies were associated with increased intention to quit smoking. Therefore, we conclude that these two TC approaches in general have positive effect in China. The combination of smoking bans and educational campaigns has the potential to build awareness of the harm of smoking and to support smoke-free legislation. Such effects will shape more favorable attitudes and social norms about quitting, which in turn can increase smokers’ intention to quit [37]. Considering that smoking bans in public places and educational campaigns were widely ignored or not implemented into practice in China [11], China should spend more effort to accelerate the progress of TC legislation in public places and should implement various forms of public educational campaigns to increase knowledge of the health consequences of smoking.

Smokers who are from rural areas and smoking few cigarettes per day are more likely affected by these two policies. In China, the vast majority of the smoking population still live in rural areas, having a higher smoking prevalence [33, 38]. Currently, related educational campaigns and bans in rural areas are implemented at relatively less extent than urban areas. Therefore, our study suggests that more attention should be paid to rural areas when designing TC programs. In addition, the light smoker should be the focus as well since they may gradually become heavy smokers and they are sensitive to the policies. Therefore, by delivering message to them intensively, they have more chance of quitting smoke and prevent themselves from becoming heavy smokers. The research findings also suggest that policies should be tailored to the smoker’s level of nicotine dependence; namely, heavier smokers should be treated with interventions to improve the effects of the TC policies. For that purpose, one option is to train doctors and health care professionals in providing brief cessation interventions or to implement a systematic cessation services referral program [39]. Another possible option is to provide a smoking cessation service hotline for mutual communication. Such actions can complement TC policies in achieving the expected objectives. Educational campaigns by mass media are effective in reaching large number of populations but are relatively expensive. Therefore, the appropriate media channel and frequency of airing can be chosen at targeted population economically [40]. In this study, individual-level factors, such as age, education level, population density, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, were found to be independently associated with the effects of educational campaigns. This finding suggests that the Chinese government and health authorities should take these factors into consideration when designing the content and forms of education activities correspondingly, so as to appeal to their target audiences more effectively. For example, smokers with higher education level are more affected by educational campaigns than those with low education level, implying the need to accommodate smokers’ education level by implementing the educational campaigns differently.

Another key finding is the level of interest (overall 9.2%) in quitting among smokers from the 17 cities studied, which is lower than that reported by Feng et al. in six cities in China (ranging from 15% to 31%) with their survey limited to urban areas [33] and certainly considerably lower than four developed countries in the West countries ranging from 65% to 81% [41]. This finding emphasizes the need for a more dedicated effort to be made to encourage quitting among Chinese smokers, so that China can significantly reduce the health burden overall arising from tobacco-related diseases and death. Despite the low level of interest to quit smoke, factors such as gender, age, income, education, and nicotine dependence are associated with interest in quitting, which is consistent with the findings from Western countries [42, 43]. One thing that needs to be pointed out is that as mentioned in Table 2 smokers from urban areas were significantly less affected by educational campaigns, but as in Table 3 we conclude that smokers in urban areas had significantly more intention to quit. Urban residents have a faster pace of life and they are overloaded by the overwhelming information every day compared to rural residents, so they may be too busy to notice the two policies. However, those urban smokers aware of the two policies are more likely to quit smoke. This is consistent with the previous studies conducted in Asian region (e.g., Indian and South-Asian region) which suggested that tobacco users with lower sociogeographical status were associated with no intention to quit [44, 45]. Generally, urban residents tend to have higher income and higher level of education, they also have higher level of health awareness, and they may see/hear the educational campaigns unconsciously, but they better know the harm of smoking, which could cause higher level of intention to quit smoking. Research from Western countries also suggested that knowledge of the health effects of tobacco tended to be lower among population groups with lower socioeconomic status [46]. Some research showed that the knowledge of smoking-related illness and exposure to antismoking messages in newspaper, TV/radio, and educational campaigns could enhance the intention to quit smoking [45]. Thus, to those urban smokers who already knew these two policies, they had significantly more intention to quit.

Consistent with previous research in the effectiveness of educational campaigns in promoting quitting [12, 33, 47], we found the same factors in predicting intention to quit smoking. Due to the lack of awareness of the health risks among Chinese smokers [48], Chinese government should adopt all possible means to enhance its TC publicity and to build good social atmosphere of support for TC in the entire society and, at the same time, customize media and message to target smokers effectively and efficiently. This decisive approach may increase smokers’ awareness of the adverse health effects of smoking and may be an effective way to increase the intention to quit smoking in China.

Moreover, this study identifies an association between the smoking bans in public places and increased intention to quit smoking. This result is consistent with the evidence from studies in the West [27, 49, 50] that the effectiveness of comprehensive smoke-free legislation (i.e., 100% smoke-free legislation, without exemptions or designated smoking rooms) in reducing per capita tobacco consumption existed. However, this is not the case for partial bans and restrictions. China still has only partial legislation, which significantly lowers its effect, especially in protecting nonsmokers from secondhand smoke. As per WHO recommendations, China should enforce the law in a more overwhelming manner, in the way of implementing comprehensive smoke-free legislation (i.e., ban smoking rooms, without exceptions), promoting local TC legislation, and running more educational campaigns.

5. Conclusions and Future Research

This study examines the effects of the two policies by major characteristics of smokers and whether the affected smokers have intention to quit smoking. Results show that smokers’ individual-level factors such as age, education level, population density, and number of cigarettes smoked per day are associated with the effects of educational campaigns, while the effects of smoking bans in public places depend on individual-level factors such as age, population density, and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Interest in quitting smoke in China is influenced by factors, such as educational campaigns, smoking bans, gender, education level, population density, household income, and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Based on our findings, policy-makers should consider these factors when designing TC programs to ensure the effectiveness of their policy.

The advantages of this study include the large sample size, the rigorous sampling design, and a suitable approach to address the issue. In general, the expected findings are identified. However, this study also has some limitations. One limitation is the use of cross-sectional data, which limits our ability to explore causal relationships. Moreover, this study uses self-reported data that may be subject to social desirability and bias. Despite training the interviewers to be objective when conducting the survey they said training may not have completely solved the problem. Furthermore, social environmental factors, aside from demographic characteristics, may also be associated with the effects of the policy and smokers’ intention to quit smoking. These factors will be examined in future studies. Although the sample is a good representative of the whole population and the results can be generalized to provide a general guidance in China, the analysis can be done in other areas to validate the robustness of our findings.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant nos. 71272064 and 71121061) and the Technological Fund of Anhui Province for Outstanding Youth (Grant no. 1308085JGD07). Thanks are also due to Dr. Qiong Wang and Dr. Shanyong Wang for valuable discussion and assistance throughout the preparation of the original paper.

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