Managerial Organization Assignment Paper From Funeral Home

Processing of Assignments in the UKOU

(A) Tutor-Marked Assignments

A student, on completing an assignment, will enter his name address and the assignment number on Form PT3—a four part form supplied by the University and attach this form to the assignment script. Form PT3 is shown on the other page. The student will then post the assignment to his tutor-counsellor (Foundation Courses) or course tutor (Higher Level Courses). On receiving the assignment, the tutor, using the Tutor Notes (making guide) provided by the Course Team, and in his dual role of both teacher and assessor, will (1) enter appropriate teaching comments on the script (2) enter the question grades and an overall grade for the script on the PT3 from and (2) enter an overall comment regarding the script on the PT3 form. The tutor in the case of most Arts; Social Sciences, Education and some Technology courses will use a six-point letter scale. In the case of Mathematics, Science and the majority of Technology courses, the tutor will use the numeric scale.

When the assignment is marked and graded, the tutor will retain one copy of the PT3 for his personal record and send the script, together with the remaining three parts of the form, to the Assignment Handling Office in Walton for processing. On receipt, the script and the three parts of the form are processed as follows:

The script plus one copy of the PT3 form are returned to the student. One copy of the PT3 form will be sent to Management services where the grades/scores will be recorded by the computer and stored on the student record file. One copy will be sent to the student's Counsellor. The diagram given on the other page summarises the operation involved in the marking and processing of tutor-marked assignments.

(B) Computer-Marked Assignments

On completing a CMA, the student posts it to the Assignment Records Office in Walton Hall. The forms are processed through a document reader which validates the date on the forms and outsorts automatically those which contain errors such as incorrect personal identifiers and those received after the appropriate cut-off-date. Using parameters provided by the Course Team, the assignments are scored numerically from 0–100 but the results of a CMA are not despatched to students until the cut-off-date for that assignment. The letters are produced according to which level(s) the Course Team has requested. The diagram given on the other page summarises the operations involved in the processing of computer-marked assignments.

The number of assignments set, and the way in which the grades/scores are combined, varies from course to course. In some cases 'formative assignments are set, which are used purely for teaching purposes and not for assessment. No grades are recorded for these assignments.

If a student wishes to appeal against the grade awarded or to query any comments made by the tutor, he/ she will return the assignment to the tutor for review. If the student is not satisfied with the action taken by the tutor regarding the appeal/query, he/she is required to send it to the regional Staff Tutor for consideration.

(C) Feedback to Course Teams

Analyses of the results of each TMA are provided by the computer and sent to the Course Team concerned, so that they can (1) identify assignments that have proved to be too difficult, too lenient or ineffective for assessment purpose and (2) areas of the course that are not being taught effectively. The Course Team, on receiving the computer analyses for the assignments and also reports from tutors and Staff Tutors on TMAs, can take remedial action designed to help both the present students (through the tuition and counselling service, through television and radio broadcasts, and through printed 'Stop-press' items) and also students taking the course in future years (through revision of course materials).

In the case of CMAs an early warning analysis is produced based on those assignments sent in well before the cut-off-date. The purpose of this analysis is to identify possible errors in the scoring parameters, or ambiguities in the questions, so that amendments to the scoring parameters may be made if necessary before the results are sent to students on the cut-off-date. In addition, an Item Analysis is produced for each computer-marked assignment on the forth working day after the published cut-off date for the assignment.

Processing of Assignments in IGNOU

On completing a TMA a student submits it to his Study Centre which in turn sends it to the concerned academic counsellor (tutor). The academic counsellor, writes tutor comments on the script enters the grade for the script and writes global comments on the Assessment Sheet which is in triplicate, The study centre receives the assessed script from the academic counsellor, notes grade in its records and returns the script to the student with a copy of Assessment Sheet. One copy of Assessment Sheet is sent to the University headquarters and the one retained at the study centre. So far CMAs are concerned they are directly sent to University headquarters by the students. Assessment Sheet is shown on the other page. Assignment work in IGNOU is a complete affair. The environment of assignment is diagrammatically shown on the other page.

Monitoring of Assignments

The work of commenting, grading or marking assignments needs to be monitored for ensuring effective distance teaching learning. Monitoring serves many purposes

  • uniformity of marking standards
  • feedback to part-time staff on the work they are doing
  • feedback to course teams on students progress on their work
  • rescheduling assignments
  • reducing/increasing the number of assignments in the course
  • modifying the advice and guidance given to learners on how to answer
  • changing the tutor notes
  • modifying the course material

Monitoring system is prevalent in all the developed distance teaching institutions. One of the aspects of the British Open University teaching system frequently praised is the monitoring system. In this system, samples of each tutor's marked scripts are reviewed by full time academics responsible for course presentation or for tutor appointments and supervision. Monitors write reports on the tutors' work and these reports are communicated to tutors in a variety of ways via staff tutors in the Regional Centres of the University. The system provides opportunity for rendering an academic's teaching visible to another; thus enabling staff to learn from each other's work and advice. Each Academic Faculty of the University has its own monitoring procedure.

Nature of Monitoring Comments

In general, monitoring comments should be positive, constructive and supportive if they are to enhance performance. This would include according to Cole, Coats and Lentell:

  • linking comments to tuition skills and not simply to academic content. Remembering that the role of the correspondence tutor is to help the student to improve, monitors' comments should embrace all aspects of teaching and not just the handling of content. For instance this might include commending the relationship the tutor is seeking to establish, the tone of the tutor's comments etc;

  • commending and reinforcing the strengths of the tutors teaching-not simply picking up on any deficiencies;

  • giving positive guidance where appropriate eg: not just passing judgements but indicating why a grade or a point is inappropriate;

  • explaining and clarifying evaluative comments eg: not just passing judgements but indicating why a grade or a point is inappropriate;

  • making reasonable and realistic demands which are likely to lead to improvement and not be regarded as excessive or exploitive;

  • generally showing respect for the tutor's professional skill, judgement and knowledge. This might include adding supportive comments such as, I'm sure this student will benefitted from your skill/expertise.

Assignments must be a Compulsory Component

Though assignments play a significant role in distance teaching—learning, many distance education institutions including the well established open universities have not yet recognised and assigned proper role for student assignments for submission.

The National Workshop on Academic Counselling in Distance Education recently organised by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Open University, Andhra Pradesh, India, in collaboration with the Commenwealth of Learning suggested the following action for making students assignments as an effective instrument for distance teaching—learning, particularly keeping Indian Open Universities in mind:

  1. Every distance teaching university must necessarily have a component of assignments because only through the distance learners can progress in their studies. Assessment of assignments must count for final score of courses

  2. There should not be any place for adhocisism in planning and implementing assignments work.

  3. Economic factors should not be the criteria to neglect the assignments component.

  4. Delay in the preparation and despatch of assignments to students should be avoided. As far as possible they should be sent to students along with the first despatch of the course materials.

  5. It is desirable to have a assignments question bank to reduce delay in the preparation of assignments every semester or year. Question banks can be evolved at study centres and Regional Centres besides the university headquarters.

  6. Assignments should be accompanied by tutor guides or notes to guide tutors on the ways and methods of assessment of assignments.

  7. Evaluators of assignments must necessarily be oriented and reoriented on the methods of evaluation.

  8. Monitoring on assignment evaluation is essential. In the British Open University full time senior counsellors at Regional Centres and in IGNOU full time academic staff undertake monitor work. These models can be adopted by state open universities in India with necessary modifications.

  9. Coordinators of study centre should get deeply involved for ensuring proper assessment of assignments. They should check samples of evaluated assignments to provide feedback to the evaluators.

  10. Coordinators of study centres should insist on evaluators on the need to observe time schedules for returning evaluated assignments.

  11. Scope for appeal to the students against the marks and grades given by teachers must be provided.

  12. Manuals for evaluators should be available.

References

  1. IGNOU Handbook 4: Assessment of Assignment Responses. 1989. Division of Distance Education, Indira Gandhi National Open University.

  2. Thorpe, Mary. 1988. "Student Assignments." In Open Learning for Adults. ed. Mary Thorpe and David Grugen. London; Longman Group.

  3. Ganor, Margalit. 1988. "Assignment Construction in Distance Education." In Developing Distance Education, eds. David Sewart and John Daniel. Oslo: ICDE 14th World Conference Papers.

  4. Mackenzie, M. 1976. "Student Reaction to Tutor Comments on the TMA." Teaching at a Distance No. 5.

  5. Lewis, PL 1984. How to Tutor and Support Learners: Open Learning Guide 3. London: Council for Educational Technology.

  6. Beyth, Maron, Ellise, S and Ganor. 1988. "Tutor and Course Coordinator Hierarchical Relationships and Mutual perceptions." In Developing Distance Education, eds. David Sewart and John Daniel. Oslo: ICDE 14th World Conference Papers.

  7. Baath, J. A. 1980. Postal Two Way Communication in Correspondence Education. Lund: Gleerup.

  8. Race, Phil. 1989. The Open Learning Handbook 1: Selection Designing and Supporting Open Learning Materials. London: Kogan page.

  9. Lewis, Roger. 1987. The Open Learning Handbook 2: How to Help Learners Assess Their Progress. London: Council for Educational Technology.

  10. Ibid.

  11. Ibid.

  12. Race, Phil. 1989. The Open Learning Handbook 1: Selection Designing and Supporting Open Learning Materials. London: Kogan page.

  13. Ibid.

  14. Rowntree, Derek. 1989. Teaching through Self-Instructions: A Practical Handbook for Course Developers. London: Kogan page.

  15. Race, Phil. 1989. The Open Learning Handbook 1: Selection Designing and Supporting Open Learning Materials. London: Kogan page.

  16. Rekkedel, T. 1973. The Written Assignments in Correspondence Education: Effects of Reducing Turn Around Time—An Experimental Study. Oslo: NKI.

  17. Child, G. B. 1963. "Supervised Correspondence Education at USAFI." In Brandenburg Memorial Essay 1. Madison: University of Wisconsin.

  18. Holmberg, B. 1977. Distance Education: A Survey and Bibliography. London: Kogan Page.

  19. Thompson, D. and Castro, F. 1988. "Assignments Turn Around Time—Perceptions and Processes". In Developing Distance Education, eds. David Sewart and John Daniel. Oslo: ICDE 14th World Conference Papers.

  20. Rekkedel, T. 1983. "Research and Development Activities in the Field of Distance Study at NKI." In Distance Education: International Perspectives, eds. David Sewart, Desmond Keegan and Holmberg. London Croom Helme.

  21. Cole, S., Coats, M., and Lentell, H. 1986. "Towards Teaching by Correspondence," Open Learning No. 1.

  22. IGNOU Handbook 4: Assessment of Assignment Responses. 1989. Division of Distance Education, Indira Gandhi National Open University.

  23. Ibid.

  24. Satynarayana, P. 1990. Assignments: Nature, Role and Operation. Hyderabad: IGNOU Regional Centre.

  25. Handbook for Part-time Tutorial and Counselling Staff. 1986. UKOU.

  26. Cole, S., Coats, M., and Lentell, H. 1987. "Towards a New Emphasis in Monitoring." Open Learning. Vol. 2. (3).

  27. National Workshop on Academic Counselling in Distance Education 25 June - 3 July 1992: A Report. Hyderabad: Dr B. R. Ambedkar Open University.

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MSFS 101-3 Orientation to Funeral Service.  Students will trace the history of funeral services from ancient times through contemporary practices with emphasis on the development of funeral practices in the United States. Students study the customs of various cultures throughout the world including customs in the United States. They will demonstrate a knowledge of funeral service organizations and will discuss current topic areas of the profession. Lecture three hours. Restricted to MSFS majors.
MSFS 108-3 Funeral Service Psychology.  Designed to provide the student with an overview of psychology in funeral service as applied to death, grief and mourning. Students will examine interpersonal and public relations as they affect the funeral service practitioner. This course is writing intensive and reflects the College`s Communication-Across-the-Curriculum initiative. Lecture three hours. Prerequisite:ENGL 101 with a grade of C or better.
MSFS  210-3  College  Accounting  for  Funeral  Service.  This course is an introduction to basic principles of accounting theory. This subject covers financial statements and their analysis, journalizing concepts, receivables, payables, deferrals and accruals. Inventory costing methods, depreciation methods and payroll accounting are included. Applications to funeral home operations are the focus throughout the subject material.
MSFS 215-3 Business Law for Funeral Service.  Students will learn the basic principles of business law as they relate to funeral service. Especially stressed are the bodies of law and the judicial system found in the United States of America including contracts, sales, bailments (including carriers), commercial paper, agency, employment, and business organization.
MSFS 230-4 Mortuary Anatomy.  The student will study the structure and function of the human body as a whole including: general organization, structural organization, tissues, skeletal system, nervous system, circulatory system, physiology of circulation, glands, respiratory system, digestive system, genitourinary system, integument and special senses. Lecture three hours. Prerequisite: ZOOL 115/118. Restricted to MSFS majors.
MSFS 240-3 Mortuary Regulations.  The student will have knowledge of the federal, state and local regulations pertaining to the funeral profession. Studies will include the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations, Americans with Disabilities Act, Uniform Anatomical Gift Act, the Federal Trade Commission requirements, Rules and Regulations for the Control of Communicable Disease and other such regulations governing funeral service. Lecture three hours. Restricted to MSFS majors.
MSFS 245-4 Restorative Art.  Students will build upon knowledge of the anatomical structures of the cranial and facial areas of the human skull gained through anatomy. Students will develop a knowledge of facial proportions, modeling, expressions, and materials and techniques necessary to rebuild the human face. Laboratory assignments will include  bone and tissue restoration, facial modeling, hair restorations, and others. Prerequisite: AH 241. Lab fee: $150.
MSFS 256-3 Introductory Microbiology.  The student will survey microbiology:  morphology, physiology,  populations  of microbial organisms, microbial destruction, immunology, and pathogenic agents. Lecture three hours. Prerequisite: PLB 115 or ZOOL 115 or 118 and CHEM 106. Restricted to major.
MSFS 257-3 Pathology.  Students will be introduced to the study of the cause, course and effects of diseases upon the human body, with stress on ways in which tissue changes affect the embalming process. Lecture three hours. Prerequisite: MSFS 256 and AH 241.
MSFS 270-2 Computers in Funeral Service.  The student will be given the opportunity to enhance their understanding of the applications of computers to the funeral profession. This course is designed to instill an appreciation for computers as an effective funeral home management tool.  Lecture 2 hours. Restricted to MSFS majors.
MSFS 270Q-2 Computers in Funeral Service.  The student will be given the opportunity to enhance their understanding of the applications of computers to the funeral profession. This course is designed to instill an appreciation for computers as an effective funeral home management tool. Lecture 2 hours. Restricted to MSFS majors. This is an online delivery course.
MSFS 299-1 to 16 Individual Study.  Provides students with an opportunity to explore studies that fit a particular need or interest. Enrollment provides access to the resources of the facilities of the entire institution. Each student will work under the supervision of a sponsoring staff member. Restricted to MSFS majors.
MSFS 302-3 Restorative Color and Cosmetics.  The student will learn advanced procedure and techniques for restoration and cosmetology. Special attention will be placed upon pigments, visual aspects of color and color schemes, lighting, complexion types and materials, corrective shaping, rouging, waxing and powdering. Lecture two hours. Laboratory two hours. Prerequisite: MSFS 245 and MSFS 257 with grades of C or better. Lab fee: $50.
MSFS 302Q-3 Restorative Color and Cosmetics.  The student will learn advanced procedure and techniques for restoration and cosmetology. Special attention will be placed upon pigments, visual aspects of color and color schemes, lighting, complexion types and materials, corrective shaping, rouging, waxing and powdering. Lecture two hours. Laboratory two hours. Prerequisite: MSFS 245 and MSFS 257 with grades of C or better.
MSFS 325A-4 Embalming Theory and Practice I.  The student will be introduced to techniques of embalming through a study of the body, sanitation, embalming agents, instruments and methods of embalming. The student studies the theory, practices and techniques of sanitation as well as restoration and preservation of deceased human remains. Laboratory experiences consist of embalming deceased remains and of other related activities. Lecture three hours. Laboratory two hours. Prerequisite: MSFS 245, MSFS 257, Allied Health 241 or equivalent Anatomy with grades of C or better and proof of Hepatitis B vaccine or Titre test. Restricted to Mortuary Science and Funeral Service majors. Lab fee: $50.
MSFS 325B-4 Embalming Theory and Practice II.  The student will study the anatomy of the circulatory  system, the autopsied case, the cavity  embalming,  the  contents  of the thoracic and abdominal cavities and various embalming treatments. Laboratory experience is a continuation of 325A. Lecture three hours. Laboratory two hours. Must be taken in A, B sequence. Prerequisite: MSFS 245, MSFS 257, Allied Health 241 or equivalent Anatomy with grades of C or better and proof of Hepatitis B vaccine or Titre test. Restricted to Mortuary Science and Funeral Service majors. Lab fee: $50.
MSFS 340-3 Mortuary Law.  Deals with the statutory laws and practices pertaining to funeral service.  The student will trace the laws that govern the funeral director and the embalmer and their legal responsibilities to the consumer. Knowledge will be gained concerning the legal status of a dead human body, necessities of disposition, methods of disposition, rights and parties undertaking responsibility of disposition, custodial rights of the dead human remains, contract laws, right of disposition, control of the funeral, general rules of priority pertaining to next of kin, mental anguish, photographs, confidentiality, negligent acts by the funeral director and/or embalmer, mutilation laws, injury to pallbearers, Clergy and staff, physical impact, collection against an estate, primary obligor, estate liability, cremation, authorization, commingling of remains, personal effects, storage and shipping of remains. Lecture three hours. Prerequisite: MSFS 256, MSFS 245 with grades of C or better. Restricted to major.
MSFS 350-1 to 32 Mortuary Science and Funeral Service Subjects.  In-depth competency and skill development and exploration of innovative techniques and procedures used in business, industry, professions, and health service occupations offered through various workshops, special short courses,and seminars. Hours and credit to be individually arranged.  Mandatory Pass/Fail. Restricted to MSFS majors.
MSFS 351-4 Funeral Service Management.  The student will learn skills necessary to effectively manage a funeral home. Included are the funeral director`s responsibilities from the first call to the completion of the funeral service. Topics include completing pre-need and post-need forms, human resource management, financial management, facilities management, maintenance of records, religious ceremonies, and professional ethics. Lecture four hours. Prerequisite: MSFS 240.
MSFS 351Q-4 Funeral Service Management.  The student will learn skills necessary to effectively manage a funeral home. Included are the funeral director`s responsibilities from the first call to the completion of the funeral service. Topics include completing pre-need and post-need forms, human resource management, financial management, facilities management, maintenance of records, religious ceremonies, and professional ethics. Lecture four hours. Prerequisite: MSFS 240. This is an online delivery course.
MSFS 352-3 Funeral Service Merchandising and Marketing.  The student will learn the fundamentals of merchandising, product mix and pricing of funeral service merchandise (i.e., caskets, burial vaults, urns, etc.). Other topics include developing a funeral home marketing plan and applying small business marketing techniques to funeral homes. Lecture three hours. Co-requisite: MSFS 351.
MSFS 355-3 Embalming Chemistry.  The student will study the chemistry of the body, sanitation, toxicology, chemical changes in deceased human remains, disinfection, and embalming fluids. Laboratory experiences in 325A will complement lecture material. Lecture three hours. Corequisite:MSFS 325A. Prerequisite: CHEM 106 and MSFS 240 or concurrent enrollment in MSFS 240.
MSFS 360-4 Advanced Embalming Procedures.  The student will study the proper procedures of embalming and other necessary preparations of special cases. Studies will include techniques and procedures used for embalming unique cases such as decomposition cases, burn victims, car accident victims, and other traumatic faces of death. Students will be required to submit several written research papers and present oral presentations of specific topics throughout the semester. Lecture four hours. Prerequisites: MSFS 245, 257, 325A, 325B and 355 with grades of C or better.
MSFS 364-3 Principles and Practices of Cremation.  The student will focus on the important considerations when working with those that choose cremation as a form of disposition. This includes proper identification, legal authorization, use of third party crematories, required forms, cremation containers, containers for cremated deceased, cremation merchandise, services in conjunction with cremation, arranging for disposition of cremated deceased, shipping cremated deceased, FTC compliance, and the history of cremation.
MSFS 364Q-3 Principles and Practices of Cremation.  The student will focus on the important considerations when working with those that choose cremation as a form of disposition. This includes proper identification, legal authorization, use of third party crematories, required forms, cremation containers, containers for cremated deceased, cremation merchandise, services in conjunction with cremation, arranging for disposition of cremated deceased, shipping cremated deceased, FTC compliance, and the history of cremation. MSFS 369-3 Cremation and the Disposing of the Dead. The student will study the process of dying and the history of death disposal with emphasis on cremation. The student will examine how religion has played a part in the increase/decrease in acceptance of cremation being a method of disposing of the dead. Students will review cremation trends in the U.S. and the legal formality of cremation authorization and the cremation process. Students will explore how the death care industry is marketing cremation and analyze how the industry has adapted to consumer demands.
MSFS 375Q-4 Research Project.  This course requires the selection and investigation of a research topic culminating in a paper to satisfy the research requirement for the Bachelor of Science degree in Mortuary Science and Funeral Service.  MSFS 399-1 to 8 Occupational Internship in Mortuary Science. The student will be assigned to a University approved organization engaged in activities related to the student`s academic program and career goals. The student will participate in activities related to funeral service that make a positive impact on or positive outreach for funeral service.  These activities can include, but not limited to, an active holiday program, an outreach program, an aftercare program or other community activities. The student will perform duties assigned by the immediate supervisor or the course coordinator. Reports and assignments must be completed by the student. Mandatory Pass/Fail.
MSFS 401-2 Funeral Service Counseling. The student will be taught specific counseling procedures when counseling the bereaved family. Specific attention will be paid to the counseling and communication techniques and skills that will assist individual family members with handling grief and the mourning process. In addition, students will explore the concepts of pre-need and after-care services. Prerequisites:MSFS 108 or PSYC 102 or consent of school.
MSFS 410-5 Funeral Service Internship-Management.  Students will be assigned to a University approved funeral home learning in actual practice situations: functional organization, procedures, and policies of the establishment. The course is 14 weeks in length. Not for graduate credit. Prerequisite: all other requirements of the MSFS major must be met including a grade point average of at least 2.0 in major. Co-requisites: MSFS 411 and 412.
MSFS 411-5 Funeral Service Internship-Embalming.  Students will be assigned to a University approved funeral home to be given the opportunity to learn embalming techniques by active participation in the preparation room under the direct supervision of a licensed embalmer. The course is 14 weeks in length. Not for graduate credit. Restriction: all other requirements of the MSFS major must be met including a grade point average of at least 2.0 in major. Co-requisites: MSFS 410 and 412. Special approval needed from the advisor.
MSFS 412-2 Funeral Service Seminar. Formal discussions are held to evaluate the experiences and progress of the participants in the internship program. The student will participate in mock funeral arrangements and will evaluate themselves on style, knowledge and confidence via video. The second part of the seminar is a review for the National Board Examination. In accordance with accreditation standards, each student will be required to take the National Board Examination prior to graduation. The expense for the exam is the responsibility of the student. Mandatory Pass/Fail. Not for graduate credit. Co-requisites: MSFS 410 and 411.
MSFS 415-3 On Dying and Death. Students will study the processes of death, grief, and bereavement. Emphasis on the practical aspects of coping with the many problems concerning death. Not for graduate credit.

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